Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction 1865 - 1877. The Legacy of the Civil War “The Civil War made America acknowledge the importance of equality in diversity” 1.Abolished slavery."— Presentation transcript:
The Legacy of the Civil War “The Civil War made America acknowledge the importance of equality in diversity” 1.Abolished slavery by making it illegal 2.13 th, 14 th, 15th Amendments 3.Strengthened national power 4.Impoverished the South by freeing their source of labor 5.Political divisions become geographic
The Legacy of the Civil War Northerners: It was a fight to save the Union Southerners: It was a fight to protect their rights from the Federal government African-Americans: It was a fight for freedom
The Legacy of the War One President dead One “President” imprisoned Over 600,000 dead w. more wounded – 13 million = Civil War fought in 2013 – 1 in 4 males in the south dead/wounded Four million slaves freed Social system & economy of the south flipped How can you reconcile this?
The Five Questions of Reconstruction 1.Who would direct the process of Reconstruction? The President, the south, Congress? 2.Should CSA leaders be tried for treason? 3.How would the south be rebuilt? Who would pay for it? 4.How would the south be reunited with the union? 5.What would be done with newly freed slaves? Were they to be made equal?
Remember… The 13 th Amendment had passed before Lincoln was assassinated 40 Acres & a Mule was in effect by Special Field Orders No. 15 Lincoln (R) and Johnson (D) formed the Union Party The Civil War had ended… or had it?
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan Very lenient terms of pardon for Confederates – Had to swear allegiance to the Union. Once 10% of those on the 1860 voting list of a specific state had swore allegiance that state would be allowed back in. – Believed that individuals had left the Union, not states. – Only high CSA officials & those convicted of war crimes wouldn’t be pardoned. “The 10% Plan”
Radical Republicans Minority within Congress that were outraged by Lincoln’s plan believing it to be too soft. Early abolitionists who had desired equal rights for African-Americans including suffrage & full citizenship. Proposed the Wade-Davis Bill in response to the 10% Plan. – Gave Congress power over Reconstruction, made 50% swear allegiance.
Thaddeus Stevens – Radical Republican Member of the House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. Witty & Sarcastic, noted as one of the most prominent members ever in Congress.
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan “Presidential Reconstruction” Democrat leading a Republican office with a Republican Congress. Problem?
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan “Presidential Reconstruction” Raised in the south, self-educated & poor, he promised to deliver “harsh punishment” to the South. Would allow remaining southern states (AL,GA,FL,MS,SC,NC,TX) back if they: – Handled war debts – Swore allegiance – Passed 13 th Amendment
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan DID NOT: – Address land, voting, protection of freed slaves – Had pardoned 7,000 southerners by 1866. – Returned all property to former Confederates who pledged loyalty. Overruled 40 Acres & a Mule. – All ex-CSA began to work toward their former political positions
Andrew Johnson’s Own Words “This is a country for white men & by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for white men.” -April, 1866 – Letter to Gov. of Missouri after vetoing the Civil Rights Bill
How The South Responded Relieved. – Johnson supported abolition, but not equality. States quickly abided by his plan. – States re-elected officials, most ex-CSA Johnson deemed Reconstruction nearly complete.
Congressional Reconstruction Begins (Dec. 1865) Freedmen’s Bureau Created by Pres. Lincoln Assisted freedmen in gaining land, jobs, an education, helped to reunite families. Helped in protecting freedmen from disgruntled southerners. Civil Rights Act “This bill neither confers nor abridges the rights of any one, but simply declares that in civil rights there shall be an equality among all classes of citizens, and that all alike shall be subject to the same punishments.” President Johnson VETOED BOTH. Lost all Republican support by doing so. Moderate + Radical Republicans team up.
Congressional Reconstruction Begins Nation was “taped” back together: – The south still had problems left unanswered. – Moderate Repubs + Radicals = Bills being made. – Freedmen’s Bureau gets bolstered (Feb 1966) – Civil Rights Act gets formed to combat Black Codes
Black Codes Enacted by southern states after the Civil War to: – Limit civil liberties & rights of African-Americans – Feared equality of blacks – Feared that freedmen would not work unless forced
Congressional Reconstruction With majority in Congress, Republicans were able to steer Reconstruction. Came to the conclusion that: – By seceding, the south had given up both civil & political rights under the Constitution. – Therefore, previous Reconstruction plans were voided. 14 th Amendment formed, states wouldn’t be allowed re-entry until accepted by the state. – Tennessee immediately ratifies and rejoins the union. Race riots begin in the south.
Congressional Election of 1866 Republicans needed to maintain majority in Congress. Pres. Johnson needed to convince the public to follow his quick unification. Republicans cited “waving the bloody shirt” to fuel northern aggression to support them. Republicans maintained a 2/3 rds majority ensuring they could overturn all of Johnson’s vetoes.
Congressional Reconstruction Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 – Divided the south into five territories – New govt officials needed to be elected – This act punished the south & ensured African- American rights. What would happen once states were readmitted? – Fears over a regression in the south.
15 th Amendment Passed Gave all men the right to vote regardless of race, color, etc… – Sorry, ladies… Prohibited racial discrimination – (“Separate, but equal” still was OK somehow…) To combat this, the south enacted poll taxes, literacy laws, intimidation tactics, lynching, etc…
The Three Amendments Review 13 th Amendment (1865) – Abolished Slavery. 14 th Amendment (1868) – Provided citizenship rights for those born in America, protected them by law, and prohibited the deprivation of personal rights by law. 15 th Amendment (1970) – Provided suffrage regardless of color.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act (1867) Johnson fired Sec. of War Edwin M. Stanton violating this act.
Votes Needed to Impeach: 36 Votes Needed to Acquit: 19