Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system Worksheet 2E The Pharynx: The pharynx allows food and air to enter the body.
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system The Epiglottis The epiglottis prevents food from being inhaled into the lower air passage (the trachea).
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system Larynx: This is commonly referred to as the voice box. Air passes through the larynx into the trachea. Also within the larynx are the vocal cords responsible for voice production.
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system Trachea: This is commonly referred to as the windpipe. It comprises of a large strong and flexible tube. It is vital that this tube remains open, rings of cartilage ensure that this is so.
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system Bronchi: The trachea branches into two at its far end. These two branches comprise the bronchi. There are two branches so the air can pass into both the left and the right lung.
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system Bronchioles: The bronchi divide into smaller and smaller tubes known as the bronchioles.
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system Alveoli: The alveoli are tiny air sacs found at the extreme ends of the bronchioles. There are many millions of these and they go to make up the vast majority of the lung tissue. It is here that gaseous exchange take place.
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system Lungs: There are two lungs housed within the chest cavity. They can be inflated and deflated similar to two balloons. They have the appearance and feel of sponge because of the millions of tiny air sacs. The outer surface of the lungs is covered by the pleura. The pleura is smooth and moist which reduces the amount of friction exerted on the lungs as they expand and contract.
Functions of the elements of the Respiratory system The Diaphragm: The diaphragm is a muscle situated below the lungs, it seals the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It is responsible for the action of breathing. By contracting and relaxing the diaphragm changes the pressure within the chest cavity. When it is contracted air is drawn into the lungs and when it is relaxed air is forced out of the lungs.
The mechanisms of breathing worksheet 2F Taking a breath is a result of a message from the brain being sent to the lungs. This message is sent because of the growing level of carbon dioxide in the blood stream. It is possible to voluntarily hold the breath for quite a long time. However even people who are good at doing this must eventually take another breath.
The recovery process Recovery from vigorous exercise: Worksheet 2G
Measures of the Respiratory system Vital capacity: Vital capacity refers to the largest volume of air that can be expired after the deepest possible inspiration. Tidal volume: Tidal volume is the amount of air that is breathed in and out whether at rest or during exercise.
The effects of exercise and training on the respiratory system The production of carbon dioxide, water and the release of energy
The effects of exercise and training on the respiratory system Adults take between 12-18 breaths per minute when resting, however during exercise we breath more frequently in order to meet the need for increased oxygen. Humans can increase their breathing rate up to 50 breaths per minute during intense activity.
How do we measure breathing? Apart from running for the bus there are 5 tests of respiratory performance Vital Capacity. The maximum amount of air that can be breathed out (about 4.5 litres). Residual Volume. The amount left in the lungs (about 1.5 litres). Respiratory Rate. How many breaths we take depending on activity. Tidal Volume. The amount of air taken in or out depending on the size of the lung. Minute Volume. How much air is breathed in a minute (tidal volume x respiratory rate)*
Are you fit? (healthy fit that is) Why is it that fit athletes hardly get out of breath while less fit people huff and puff? Athletes get fitter through training. Their bodies are able to use oxygen more efficiently. They use the maximum amount of oxygen that can be used during exercise. This is known as V0 2 max. Very fit athletes such as middle and long distance runners work at about 85% of their maximum. non athletes are at 65%.*
The benefits of exercise and training on the respiratory system Exercise and training develops and affects the circulatory and respiratory systems; – stronger heart muscle, – increased stroke volume, – increased cardiac output, – lower resting heart rate, – more efficient gaseous exchange, – increased vital capacity, – increased tidal volume, – increased oxygen debt tolerance
The effects and needs of different activities on the respiratory system Different physical activities will put different demands on the respiratory system. Some activities put a LARGE DEMAND on the system (meaning heavy breathing) and some activities put a SMALL DEMAND on the system (meaning easy breathing). ACTIVITY: Can you label the following activities, as either making a LARGE DEMAND or a SMALL DEMAND on the respiratory system?