2Respiratory SystemThe respiratory system is mainly concerned with breathingThe function of the respiratory system is to get oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body.The parts of the respiratory system are:air passageslungsdiaphragm
5Passage of AirEnters the nasal cavity, here the air warms, moistens & is filtered.Air then passes into the larynxAir is then passed down the trachea (windpipe)Air then moves through the bronchi (left & right bronchus)Air then passes into the bronchiolesAir then goes into the alveoli
7Gaseous exchangeThe O² breathed in goes through the mouth or nose, down the trachea, into the lungs and into the alveoli.The O² passes through the alveoli walls into the red blood cells, via the capillaries.The O² joins with haemoglobin to make oxyhaemoglobin.The oxyhaemoglobin is used by the working body and is transported by the circulatory system to cells needing to release energy.CO² is produced as a waste productThis is converted into a gas and passes back through the alveoli walls, via the capillaries into the blood plasma.Blood takes it back to the capillaries in the lungs.CO² passes through the capillary and alveoli walls into the alveoli.It is then exhaled from the body.
8Mechanism of Breathing InspirationDiaphragm pulls downIntercostal muscles contractAir pressure is reducedAir is sucked through the tubes into the lungsChest expandsExpirationDiaphragm relaxes into its dome positionIntercostal muscles relaxChest becomes smallerPressure increases on lungsAir is forced out
10Definitions Vital Capacity The maximum amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled, after breathing in as much as possible.Residual VolumeThe amount of air left in the lungs after a maximal breath.Respiratory RateNumber of breaths per minuteTidal VolumeAmount of air breathed in or out at restMinute VolumeVolume of air breathed in, in 1 minute.
11Respiratory System during exercise Tidal volume increasesBreathing rate increases and becomes deeper and more regularHeart beat increases, supplying the demand for more O² in the working musclesGaseous exchange in alveoli increases
12Long-term effects of training on the respiratory system EnduranceIncreased training makes gaseous exchange in the alveoli more efficient.Muscles are able to work at a harder level for longer without tiring – increasing the vital capacity of the lungs.Interval over short distances at high speedsNew capillaries are formed, heart muscle is strengthened and delivery of O² improves.