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Section 37-1 Capillary Connectiv e tissue Smooth muscle Endothelium Valve Venule Endothelium Arteriole Vein Artery The Three Types of Blood Vessels.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 37-1 Capillary Connectiv e tissue Smooth muscle Endothelium Valve Venule Endothelium Arteriole Vein Artery The Three Types of Blood Vessels."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Section 37-1 Capillary Connectiv e tissue Smooth muscle Endothelium Valve Venule Endothelium Arteriole Vein Artery The Three Types of Blood Vessels

3 Chapter 18 Human Respiratory System

4 Section 37-1 Capillaries of head and arms Capillaries of abdominal organs and legs Inferior vena cava Pulmonary vein Capillaries of right lung Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery Capillaries of left lung Figure 37-2 The Circulatory System

5 Section 37-1 Right Ventricle Right Atrium Left Atrium Inferior Vena Cava Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium Tricuspid Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle Pulmonary Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery Pulmonary Veins Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium Superior Vena Cava Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium Aorta Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Pulmonary Arteries Bring oxygen-poor blood to the lungs Aortic Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aorta Mitral Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricle Left Ventricle Septum Figure 37-3 The Structures of the Heart

6 Break in Capillary Wall Blood vessels injured. Clumping of Platelets Platelets clump at the site and release thromboplastin. Thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin.. Clot Forms Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes a clot. The clot prevents further loss of blood.. Figure Blood Clotting

7 Section 37-2 Superior vena cava Lymph nodes Thymus Heart Thoracic duct Spleen Lymph vessels Figure The Lymphatic System

8 The Respiratory System

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10 Alveoli Bronchiole Capillary Section 37-3 Figure Gas Exchange in the Lungs

11 Air inhaled Diaphragm Rib cage rises Air exhaled Diaphragm Rib cage lowers InhalationExhalation Section 37-3 Figure The Mechanics of Breathing

12 Air inhaled Diaphragm Rib cage rises Air exhaled Diaphragm Rib cage lowers InhalationExhalation Section 37-3 Figure The Mechanics of Breathing

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14 Human Respiration video

15 What three things are required to be a respiratory surface?

16 1.THIN 2.MOIST 3.In contact with exchanging material

17 Respiration Respiration- is an organisms’ ability to create energy. (ATP ) Respiration Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation

18 The path Oxygen must travel along Your Respiratory System Nose (nasal cavity) Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles alveoli pleura diaphragm

19 Human Respiration Involves the process of cellular respiration and gas exchange a) cellular respiration: glucose + O 2  H 2 O + CO ATP’s b) gas exchange: **exchange of gases between the internal and external environment with the use of lungs

20 (I) Human Respiratory System Composed of a network of passageways which permits air to flow from the external environment and into the lungs Kept open By cartilaginous rings

21 Human Respiratory system Diaphragm

22 Nasal Cavity StructureFunction Lined with: cilia mucus membrane hairs Olfactory Nerve endings The cilia and mucus: 1. Filters air 2. Warms air 3. Moistens air (Warmed air diffuses easier!!!)

23 Pharynx StructureFunction *Known as the throat region *It is an area in which both air and food pass through

24 LarynxStructureFunction *Also called the Adam’s apple *or voice box *2 pairs of vibrating membranes *Humans use the larynx as a voice box which contains vocal cords that vibrate and produce sound as air passes through

25 EpiglottisStructureFunction *A cartilaginous/ muscular flap *Covers the trachea when swallowing food

26 TracheaStructureFunction *AKA: windpipe **Kept open by rings of cartilage **Lined with a ciliated mucus membrane Breathing tube (One cigarette paralyzes the cilia for 20 minutes)

27 Human Respiratory System

28 Bronchi (bronchus = singular)StructureFunction *Trachea divides into two major divisions known as bronchi **also contain cartilage rings ***The bronchi subdivide many times forming smaller tubules known as bronchioles *Two tubes air leading to the lungs

29 BronchiolesStructureFunction *Lack cartilage rings alveoli **Tiny bronchioles subdivide and terminate (end) with structures known as alveoli *Smallest air tubes within the lungs

30 Lung: Above: Normal city dwellers lung. Note black specks throughout indicative of carbon deposits from pollution. Smokers lung with cancer. White area on top is the cancer, this is what killed the person.

31 Human Respiratory System

32 Alveoli (s. alveolus) StructureFunction * thin, (like capillaries) *moist *surrounded by capillaries * gas exchange between the lung and the blood **increase surface area for gas exchange ***O2 diffuses into the blood from the alveoli and CO2 and water diffuse out of the blood and into the alveoli

33 Alveoli

34 Bronchiole Capillary Gas Exchange in the Lungs

35 Lung Capacity Lab (Vital capacity): My actual lung Capacity=4100cm3 (2) lungs measurements: 17cm x 6cm x 10cm = 2400 cm3 41% 17cm x 6cm x 10cm = 2400 cm3 41% Balloon value= 3100cm3 Calculated Vital Capacity My height 66’’x 2.54cm= x 29 = cm3 Height x factors = capacity

36 Gas exchange

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39 Using complete sentences describe “how you breathe?”

40 Diaphragm *Muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity **Causes Pressure within thoracic cavity

41 (II) Breathing Process Lungs are highly elastic (stretchable) Breathing is controlled by the medulla Movement of the diaphragm and ribcage causes pressure change in the chest cavity which moves air into and out of the lungs The breathing rate is controlled by the concentration of CO2 in the blood Inhalation- breathe in Exhalation- breathe out

42 When you breath you are inhaling and exhaling…. Inhalation = O 2 (oxygen) enters the body system Exhalation =CO 2 (carbon dioxide) is passed out of the body

43 Air inhaled Diaphragm Rib cage rises Air exhale d Diaphragm Rib cage lowers InhalationExhalation The Mechanics of Breathing

44 Air inhaled Diaphragm Rib cage rises Air exhaled Diaphragm Rib cage lowers InhalationExhalation The Mechanics of Breathing

45 (II) Breathing Process

46 (IV) Gas Exchange 1.In the blood, hemoglobin binds with oxygen from the alveoli to form oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) 2.Carbon dioxide is carried primarily in the plasma of the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO 3- )

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48 (IV) Gas Exchange

49 --Bronchitis -Emphysema -Bronchitis -Asthma Many respiratory diseases are cause by abrasive agents: Asbestos -Cigarettes

50 Asbestos Asbestos fibers enter the body via inhalation or ingestion. Many factors determine how exposure to asbestos will affect health and how severely. These factors include: How many fibers entered the body How long the exposure to asbestos occurred Whether or not the asbestos was inhaled or swallowed. Inhalation of asbestos fibers can result in mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and impaired blood flow to the lungs due to enlargement of the heart. mesotheliomalung cancerasbestosis

51 Cigarettes 4000 chemicals and toxins in one puff on a cigarettes 50 cancer causing agents Tar, Nicotine, Ammonia, Formaldehyde, Arsenic (Rat poison)

52 Some other poisons in tobacco smoke that are inhaled by both smokers and passive smokers include: nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide,(rat poison) arsenic (white ant poison), ammonia (floor cleaner), phenol (paints), naphthalene (mothballs), cadmium (car batteries), urethane, Acetone (paint stripper), carbon monoxide (car exhaust), DDT (insecticide) and butane (lighter fuel).

53 Bronchitis Inflammation of the membrane of the bronchial tubes Bronchitis is caused by viruses (common cold viruses, influenza virus, adenovirus) bacteria –( Bordatella pertussis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae) or by other infectious organisms

54 Asthma An aggravated/allergic Reaction Constriction of the bronchial tubes

55 Don't panic Breathe deep, slow and easy Rest Take your prescribed asthma medication Call for help Get to a doctor Cigarette smoke Cockroaches Dust mites Mold Pets and animals Pollen Cold air Exercise Stress Respiratory infectionsAsthma

56 Emphysema *Disease in which the walls of the alveoli breakdown, Decreasing surface area for gas exchange **Decreasing surface area for gas exchange ***shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, and decreased lung capacity *****Caused by:

57 Emphysema

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59 Normal lung capacity Loss of surface area

60 Emphysema Normal lung capacity Patient 1 Patient 2

61 Pneumonia The alveoli become filled with fluid, preventing gas exchange between the alveoli and the capillaries

62 Lung Cancer

63 What is C.F.? Babies are born with (Cystic Fibrosis) CF when they inherit faulty genes from both their parents. CF is a disease in which the secretions from various glands are thick and sticky instead of being watery and free flowing. The lungs and digestive system are particularly affected. A build up of thick mucus in the lungs reduces the ability to clear bacteria leading to cycles of infection and inflammation which damage the delicate lung tissues. Lung function is progressively lost and respiratory failure is the major cause of death in CF patients. The lower intestine can also become blocked by a build up of mucus, but the major digestive problem concerns the pancreas.

64 Why we breath?

65 You mean that respiration is different then breathing?? When’s the last time you saw a tree breath?

66 What three things are required to be a respiratory surface?


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