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AP Biology 2008-2009 Respiratory System Regents Biology DO NOW  Brain Pop Video: Respiratory SystemRespiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology 2008-2009 Respiratory System Regents Biology DO NOW  Brain Pop Video: Respiratory SystemRespiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AP Biology Respiratory System

3 Regents Biology DO NOW  Brain Pop Video: Respiratory SystemRespiratory System

4 Regents Biology  Requires respiratory surface for the exchange of gases (O2 & CO2)  The surface must be:  Thin  Moist  In contact with O2  A transport system

5 Regents Biology Why do we need a respiratory system?  Need O 2 in  for cellular respiration  make ATP  Need CO 2 out  waste product O2O2 food ATP CO 2

6 Regents Biology HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  Composed of 2 lungs and the system of tubes that connects them to the outside * Lungs are in the chest cavity  diaphragm = muscle that separates lungs from abdomen

7 Regents Biology Lungs alveoli  trachea  bronchi  bronchioles  alveoli capillaries (circulatory system)

8 Regents Biology Lungs  Structure spongy texture  high surface area  more absorption of O 2  alveoli  small air sacs  moist lining  mucus traps dust, pollen, particles  covered by cilia  hair-like extensions of cells  move mucus upward to clear out lungs

9 Regents Biology Passage of Air:  Nose (nostrils)  Nasal cavity  Lined with ciliated cells capable of producing mucus - Hair catches dust particles - Air passing through the nasal cavity is moistened, warmed and filtered in the nasal cavity

10 Regents Biology  Pharynx (throat) - in the back of the oral cavity where the nasal cavity joins  Trachea (windpipe) – top part is the larynx with vocal cords  cartilage rings hold trachea open  lined with ciliated tissues that sweep dust particles up and out so they may be swallowed or expelled

11 Regents Biology  2 Bronchi – branch from the end of the trachea and lead to the 2 lungs  ** also ringed with cartilage and lined with ciliated mucous membrane  Bronchioles – highly branches tubules that subdivide from the ends of the bronchi and become progressively smaller as the pass deeper into the lungs  no cartilage rings

12 Regents Biology  Alveoli – air sacs where gas exchange occurs  surrounded by capillaries  carry away oxygen absorbed in the moist lining so it can be transported to body tissues

13 Regents Biology Do Now  Page 5 of the Respiration Packet

14 Regents Biology Breathing: Muscles and ribs + diaphragm = inhalation and exhalation to fill and empty lungs – 2x per minute  Inhale:  Ribs up and out  Diaphragm flattens  Volume increases  Pressure decreases  Exhale:  Ribs down and in  Diaphragm arches  Volume decreases  Pressure increases

15 Regents Biology Moving gases into bloodstream  Inhale  O 2 passes from alveoli to blood  by diffusion  Exhale  CO 2 passes from blood to alveoli  by diffusion capillaries (circulatory system)

16 Regents Biology

17 Gas exchange: Diffusion of gases  Gases move by diffusion from high to low concentration  capillaries are thin-walled tubes of circulatory system  alveoli are thin-walled sacs of respiratory system bloodlungs CO 2 O2O2 O2O2 bloodbody CO 2 O2O2 O2O2 capillaries in lungscapillaries in muscle

18 Regents Biology Negative pressure breathing  Diaphragm moves down & expands chest cavity pulls air into lungs inhaleexhale

19 Regents Biology Automatic Brain Control  You don’t have to think to breathe!  Primitive parts of brain coordinate breathing  medulla & pons  measure blood pH   CO 2 =  pH (acid)  coordinate breathing, heart rate & body’s need for energy

20 Regents Biology Breathing and Homeostasis  Homeostasis  keeping the internal environment of the body balanced  need to balance O 2 in and CO 2 out  need to balance energy (ATP) production  Exercise  breathe faster  need more ATP  bring in more O 2 & remove more CO 2  Disease  poor lung or heart function = breathe faster  need to work harder to bring in O 2 & remove CO 2 O2O2 ATP CO 2

21 Regents Biology Disorders of the Respiratory System  Emphysema  Asthma  Cancer

22 Regents Biology Effects of Smoking  Constricts or narrows the blood vessels  Causes blood pressure to rise and make the heart work harder  Circulation deceases  Smoking is the major cause of heart disease  Can cause chronic bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi)  Reduces life expectancy

23 Regents Biology Smoking  Can cause emphysema  Nicotine is addictive and a powerful drug which makes it difficult to quit smoking  May worsen previous conditions such as asthma  Can lead to cancers of the mouth, throat, and lungs

24 Regents Biology Gills: getting O 2 out of water  Gills are gas exchange membranes outside of the body  thin tissue  high surface area  must stay wet  lots of blood vessels  gas exchange  O 2 into blood  CO 2 out to water gills water Just keep swimming…


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