2Table of contentsSlide 1- Title Page Slide 2- Table of Contents Slide 3- About my project Slide 4- Characterization Slide 5- Setting Slide 6- Plot Slide 7- Conflict Slide 8- Foreshadowing Slide 9- Inference Slide 10- SuspenseSlide 11- SymbolismSlide 12- IronySlide 13- ConnotationSlide 14- DenotationSlide 15- SimileSlide 16- MetaphorSlide 17- ConclusionSlide 18- PicturesSlide 19- BibliographySlide 20- Bibliography Continued
3About my projectIn this project, I will be talking about the story, Top Man. Top Man, by James Ramsey Ullman, is a very good story in which a group of men are out to conquer the fourth tallest mountain in the world, K3. Along with the harsh weather conditions of the Himalayan mountains, the men learn that they have to work together in order to survive. Even when they try their hardest, some things don’t always turn out the way they planned. Within the story, there are a variety of examples of literary terms to help make the story more interesting. I will be talking about the definitions of each term, along with an example from the story.
4CharacterizationDefinition: the presentation or telling of a character in a storyFor the five types of characterization, the writer may:Give a physical description of the characterShow its actionsLet it speakReveal the characters thoughts and reveal what other characters think of themComment directly on the characterExample: “His lean British face, under its mask of stubble and windburn, was expressionless. His lips were a thin line, and his eyes seemed almost shut.” This is a physical description given of Nace during the story. “In contrast, Nace was slow, methodical, unspectacular.” This is the narrator directly commenting on Nace during the story. “We’ll have to go down tomorrow,” he said quietly. This is an example of a character directly speaking. Nace said this after they were almost to the top of the mountain, he didn’t think they could make it. This perfectly describes Nace because he is always somewhat negative, he doesn’t have any faith.
5settingDefinition: the time and place in which the events of a story occur. The setting usually establishes a simple background of a story or it can be used to create an atmosphere.The setting of Top Man was in the Himalayan mountains. The men in this story were set to conquer K3, the fourth tallest mountain in the world.
6plotThe setting of Top Man is in the Himalayan mountains of India, the men are trying to conquer K3, the fourth tallest mountain in the world. As things carry on in the story, the men run into troubles such as weather, equipment problems, and even some of them getting hurt and having to descend back down the mountain. The main event in the story occurs when Osborn tries to climb the mountain by himself. Nace and Frank, who is the narrator of the story, go to stop him, but run in to trouble. When Osborn has his life at risk, Nace tries to save him, but accidentally falls to his death in the process. As the story continues, Osborn, who still hasn’t learned his lesson, continues to climb the mountain by himself. When he comes back down, he said he never made it to the top. But, at the end of the story, it says that Nace’s ax was found at the top of the mountain, but since Nace died before he made it to the top, it only could have been Osborn who put Nace’s ax there. Since Nace died to save Osborn, Osborn repaid him by giving him the credit of making it to the top.Definition: sequence of events that take place in a story. Some stories can have multiple plots. The main event in the plot is the conflict.
7conflictDefinition: the struggle occurring between two opposing forces. Conflict can occur as person vs. person, person vs. self, person vs. society, or person vs. nature.Example: Person vs. person: Osborn and Nace fighting would be a good example of conflict. They were two very different people and could never agree on anything. Person vs. nature: All of the Englishman were battling the K3 mountain along with the harsh weather so they could make it to the top of the unconquered mountain.
8ForeshadowingIn Top Man, Osborn says that he didn’t make it to the top of K3 mountain when the narrator, Frank, asks him. This sounded very suspicious and foreshadows that later in the story, we will learn something else. At the end of the story, it said Nace’s ax was at the top of the mountain, but since Nace had died before he made it to the top, it only could have been Osborn because he was the only one who tried to climb it by himself.Definition: hints or clues that suggest events that do actually happen later in the story Foreshadowing builds suspense in a story which leads the reader to the main event.
9inferenceAt the end of Top Man, we assume that Osborn did make it to the top but didn’t tell anybody because he wanted Nace to get credit for it. Nace’s ax was found at the top of the mountain, but since Nace had died before making it to the top, we assume that Osborn was the one who made it to the top but left Nace’s ax there so he would get credit. This would be considered an inference because it is not directly stated in the story that Osborn was the one who made it to the top.Definition: a conclusion made about something based on context clues or facts The author may not tell all parts of the story so we have to assume them on our own.
10suspenseDefinition: something that happens in a story that may make the reader nervous or tense Occurs when the reader knows something is about to happen but the author leaves you guessing. It can also occur if the reader already knows what's going to happen.One example of suspense in Top Man would be when Osborn went to climb the mountain on his own. Nace and the narrator, Frank, went to stop him. Unfortunately, when they found him, he was stuck on a ledge. Nace then went out to try to help Osborn. The reader may have gotten nervous Nace was trying to save Osborn because Osborn was in trouble. But after Osborn makes the big jump and Nace falls to his death because the rope snaps, the reader has many new emotions as something very unexpected has happened.
11SymbolismDefinition: Anything that has its own meaning but also represents something else A symbol could be an object, person, place, action, or situation.One symbol in Top Man would be Nace’s ax. His ax symbolizes achieving your dreams. Although Nace didn’t get to the top of the mountain before he died, it was almost like he did. Osborn put his ax there when Osborn made it to the top. So in a way, Nace was his ax and by his ax making it to the top, Nace made it to the top.
12IronyDefinition: a difference between what is stated and what is really meant Three types of irony: Verbal Irony: Sarcasm Dramatic Irony: You know something in a story that a character doesn’t Situational Irony: when something happens that the reader doesn’t expectOne example of situational irony would be when Nace falls to his death. The reader didn’t expect him to die because Nace was attached to a rope, unlike Osborn. Therefore the reader may think Osborn is the only one at risk. Although Nace did have a rope on him, he didn’t check its security before he left camp, and the rope was weak and snapped when he fell.
13ConnotationDefinition: the emotions or associations of a word or phrase In other words, what you think about when you see a word, not the dictionary definition.“It was very cold, but the wind had fallen and the mountain seemed to hang suspended in a vast stillness.” When I think of suspended, I think of being temporarily out of something, or stuck in a situation, such as if we were suspended from school. I think of suspended as being a bad thing, being locked up, like being in jail.
14Denotation Definition: the literal meaning or definition of a word The dictionary definition of the word suspended is: to hang by attachment to something above. As you can see, the connotation and denotation of the word suspended are very different.
15simileDefinition: a comparison of two different things using like or as Similes are figures of speech and can be used in everyday language.Examples: “It was a flawlessly clear Himalayan night, and K3 tiered up into the blackness like a monstrous beacon lighted from within.” “My throat dried and contracted until it felt as if it were lined with brass.”
16MetaphorDefinition: a comparison made of two different things A metaphor doesn’t use like or as.Example: “The mountain, to all of us, was no longer a mere of giant rock and ice; it had become a living thing, an enemy, watching us, waiting for us, hostile, relentless, and aware.”
17Irony Characterization Foreshadowing Metaphor Denotation As you can see, there are a variety of literary terms in Top Man, there are probably even more than I discussed. Even though Top Man was a short story, it proved you can find literary terms such as these in almost any type of story.SimileConnotationInferenceSettingConflict
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