3 Plot (definition)Plot is the organized pattern or sequence of events that make up a story. Every plot is made up of a series of incidents that are related to one another.
4 1. ExpositionThis usually occurs at the beginning of a short story. Here the characters are introduced. We also learn about the setting of the story. Most importantly, we are introduced to the main conflict (main problem).
5 2. Rising ActionThis part of the story begins to develop the conflict(s). A building of interest or suspense occurs.
6 3. ClimaxThis is the turning point of the story. Usually the main character comes face to face with a conflict. The main character will change in some way.
7 4. Falling ActionAll loose ends of the plot are tied up. The conflict(s) and climax are taken care of.
8 5. ResolutionThe story comes to a reasonable ending.
9 Making InferencesWriters often tell you more than they say directly. They give you hints or clues that help you "read between the lines." When you infer, you go beyond the surface details to see other meanings that the details suggest or imply (not stated). When the meanings of words are not stated clearly in the context of the text, they may be implied - that is, suggested or hinted at. When meanings are implied, you may infer them.
10 Plot: ConflictConflict is the dramatic struggle between two forces in a story. Without conflict, there is no plot.
11 Types of Conflict Man vs. Man Man vs. Self Man vs. Society Man vs. NatureMan vs. Fate/SupernaturalMan vs. Technology
12 External ConflictA struggle between a character and an outside force is an external conflict. Characters may face several types of outside forces. The outside force may be another character. It may be the character and the community. The outside force may also be forces of nature. For example, a story might be the main character struggling against the arctic cold.Man vs. ManMan vs. NatureMan vs. TechnologyMan vs. SocietyMan vs. Fate/Supernatural
13 Internal ConflictA struggle that takes place in a character's mind is called internal conflict. For example, a character may have to decide between right and wrong or between two solutions to a problem. Sometimes, a character must deal with his or her own mixed feelings or emotions.Man vs. Himself
14 Main conflict / Side Conflict Main Conflict - This is the main conflict of the story. This is what the story is about.Side Conflict - This is often found in the subplot of the story, or in minor characters. It is frequently used to parallel what is happening in the story.
15 Direct and Indirect Characterization Direct Characterization - This occurs when a writer makes direct statements about a character’s personality, and tells what the character is like.Indirect Characterization - The writer reveals information about a character and his personality through that character’s words, thoughts, and actions, along with how other characters respond to that character.
16 Five Types of Indirect Characterization A character’s actionsHow others view themPrivate thoughts of the characterDialogue between charactersAppearance of the character
17 CharacterProtagonist - the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work.Antagonist - a person who is opposed to, struggles against, or competes with another; opponent; adversary.
18 Mooda predominant or pervading feeling, spirit, or tone intentionally included in the story by the author.
19 Theme The general idea about life that a work of literature reveals. Can a theme be the same as a moral?A moral can be a theme but a theme cannot always be a moral. A theme is a general idea (e.g. love, courage). A moral teaches you something (e.g. slow and steady wins the race).
20 Irony: a contrast between expectation and reality Verbal Irony: When we say the opposite of what we mean.Situational Irony: Something happens that is opposite from what we expect.Dramatic Irony: We know something a character doesn’t know.
21 GeneralizationsA generalization is a broad statement based on several particular situations. The generalization is valid when it applies to all such situations.You make generalizations by combining evidence in a text with what you already know.Example: “The Medicine Bag” - combining what you know about heritage, with what you read in the story about heritage, would/could equal a generalization about heritage.