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Chapter 21: Harsh and Arid Lands

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1 Chapter 21: Harsh and Arid Lands
Section 2 Climate and Vegetation

2 Variety in Arid Lands Southwest Asia is extremely arid. The vegetation and animals living in the desert can survive on little water and in extreme temperatures. A camel caravan in Afghanistan

3 Variety in Arid Lands In other parts of the region, a Mediterranean climate prevails, making the land green and lush for at least part of the year. Coast of Lebanon

4 Deserts Limit Movement
The most famous desert in the region is the Rub al-Khali, also known as the Empty Quarter. During the summer, the temperature on the surface of the sand often exceeds 186°F.

5 Deserts Limit Movement
Next to this desert is the An-Nafud Desert. Severe sandstorms and brutal heat make this desert a barrier to travel across the Arabian Peninsula.

6 Salt Deserts In Iran, the high mountains block rain, and dry winds increase evaporation. So when winds evaporate the moisture in the soil, chemical salts remain, creating a salt flat. A hiker resting on a salt flat in Iran

7 Semiarid Lands On the fringes of the desert are regions with a semiarid climate. These regions offer good pasture lands for grazing animals. In Turkey, large herds of mohair goats graze on these lands. Their hair, and fabrics made from it, are among Turkey’s exports. Angora goats in Turkey

8 Well-Watered Coast Lands
Southwest Asia does have some areas with adequate rainfall. Along the Mediterranean coast and across most of Turkey, hot summers and rainy winters create a good climate for growing citrus fruits, olives, and vegetables.

9 Human-Environment interaction
Section Three Human-Environment interaction

10 Providing Precious Water
The most critical resource in Southwest Asia is water. Turkey is building a series of dams and a man-made lake on the upper Euphrates River. Attaturk Dam on the Euphrates River in Turkey

11 Providing Precious Water
The dams and lake will provide water and hydroelectricity for parts of the country.

12 Providing Precious Water
The National Water Carrier project in Israel carries water from the north of the country to sites in the center and south of the nation. The National Water Carrier near Beit Netofa

13 Providing Precious Water
Several countries in the region use drip irrigation. This is the practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve water used for crops. Drip irrigation system in Israel

14 Providing Precious Water
Some countries in the region are developing ways to use ocean water. Desalinization, the removal of salt from the ocean water, is done at technically sophisticated water treatment plants. A desalinization plant in Saudi Arabia

15 Providing Precious Water
Water pumped from underground aquifers is called fossil water because it has been in the aquifer for a long period of time. This water has very little chance of being replaced because the region has so little rainfall to recharge the aquifers.

16 Oil From The Sand The oil fields discovered in the sands of Southwest Asia have been a bonanza for the region. These fields contain about two-thirds of all the petroleum reserves in the world.

17 Oil From The Sand Oil and natural gas do not exist in large pools beneath the ground but are trapped inside rocks. Rocks with oil trapped in its pores.

18 Oil From The Sand The first Southwest Asia oil discovery was in 1908 in Persia, now known as Iran.

19 Oil From The Sand Petroleum that has not been processed is called crude oil. This oil must be moved to a refinery, where it is converted into useful products.

20 Oil From The Sand Moving oil from one location to another always involves the risk of oil spills. Most modern tankers have a double hull to help prevent this type of accident.

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