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Southwest Asia: Human Environment Interaction

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1 Southwest Asia: Human Environment Interaction
Unit 7: Chapter 21, section 3 Pages

2 Today’s Objectives The student is expected to:
Examine the procurement and distribution of water resources in Southwest Asia. Describe the formation, production and movement of oil in the region.

3 Main Ideas Water is critical to regional physical survival and economic development. Discovery of oil increased the global economic importance of Southwest Asia.

4 Fresh Water Most critical resource in region
Available in small amts & w/o consistent supply Sound:

5 Dams & Irrigation Systems
Lg. pop. Lg. scale farming Farming requires irrigation H2O for irrigation comes from man-made lakes created by dams Dams also provide hydroelectricity Ataturk Dam, Turkey

6 Controversy Over Water
Countries downstream from the dam lose the use of the water for irrigation or hydroelectricity. Land is lost by rising water behind the dam Land downstream no longer receives river’s sediment

7 Water Systems Drip Irrigation: small pipes/hoses that slowly drip water just above the ground to conserve water used for crops.

8 Water Systems Irrigation canal
Noria water wheel used to lift water from river to fields Qanatunder-ground brick-lined tunnels

9 Modern Water Technology
Desalinization: removal of salt from ocean water, done at a technically sophisticated water treatment plant. However, some desalinated water may be too salty for irrigation, so it’s used in sewage systems & industrial uses. (intro only)

10 Oil from the Sand SW Asia contains ~1/2 of all the world’s petroleum reserves. Petroleum products are an important part of the world’s economy. SW Asia is a VERY important region economically.

11 Forming Petroleum Formed millions of years ago when an ancient sea covered SW Asia. Microscopic plants & animals lived in the sea & died in the water. Remains sank into the mud below. Pressure & heat transformed the material into hydrocarbons, the chemical basis of oil & natural gas. Oil & nat. gas are trapped in the microscopic pores of rock.

12 Middle East All-Operations Facts: http://www. chevron
1: Saudi Arabia — Company recorded first Saudi Arabia oil discovery in 1938. 2: Kuwait — Discovered Kuwait's Burgan Field, world's second-largest, in Technical Services Agreement assures continued technology progress. 3: Saudi Arabia and Kuwait — In the onshore Partitioned Neutral Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, crude oil total production has reached 3 billion barrels. 4: Saudi Arabia — At Al Jubail, built the Kingdom's first privately financed major petrochemical plant 5: Bahrain — Bahrain's first oil discovery in 1932. 6: Qatar — Qatar activities include world-scale polyethylene complex and five-year onshore exploration.

13 Transporting Oil Crude Oil pumped from the ground must be moved to the refinery. Pipelines transport the crude oil to refineries or ports where oil is refined. Lines are located near existing ports or other transportation markets, especially the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Med. Sea.

14 Risks of Transporting Oil
1991January 26 - KUWAIT - An estimated 240 million gallons of oil were spilled from terminals, tankers and oil wells during the final phase of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

15 Check for Understanding
Copy & answer these questions: What is the most critical resource in SW Asia? What are some ways water is supplied? Why might transporting oil be risky?

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