2Landforms Divide the Region Southwest Asia is mostly desertThe land ranges from coastal plains to snow peak mountainsForms a land bridge between Asia, Africa and EuropeThe region is situated on the edge of a huge tectonic platePart of the Arabian Peninsula is pulling away from the rest of Africa
3Arabian Peninsula Arabian Peninsula Separated from Africa by Red Sea, onSouthwest and rest of Asia by the Persian GulfRea Sea is part of the Great Rift ValleyRub Al-Khali is largest sand desert in the worldMuch of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by plains.People living on Arabian Peninsula adjusted by living nomadic lives in search of water
4Anatolian PeninsulaAnatolian Peninsula– occupied by Turkey, marks beginning of the Asian continentMuch of Anatolia is a plateau, some areas for agriculture, some for livestockBoth the Arabian and Anatolians Peninsula are on strategic waterwaysRed Sea-connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Suez CanalBosporus Strait and Dardenelles Strait-connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea (important for trade with Russia)Strait of Hormuz-connects the Persian Gulf with the Indian Ocean. This is important because this allows access to the oil fields of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq
7Plains and Highlands Arabian Peninsula is a plain Few activates occur hereMost of the land is barren (empty) with some low hills, ridges and wadis – riverbeds that remain dry except during rainy seasonsMost of Iran is a plateau surrounded by mountains.It is isolated and very high.The land is very arid.The surrounding the plateau can produce some crops.Northern Plain of Afghanistan is a well-watered area that is surrounded by high mountains (which isolate it from other regions)
9Mountains Rugged mountains divide the land Hindu Kush mountains (isolate Afghanistan from Pakistan)Mountains have a series of cavesZagros Mountains – Western Iran (isolate it from the rest of Southwest Asia)Elburz mountains-northern Iran (separates Caspian Sea from Iran)Taurus Mountains – separate Turkey from the rest of AsiaIn spite of these barriers, people, ideas, goods still spread.One of the ways they spread is water.
11Water Bodies Region is surrounded by bodies of water. Important for trade and access to other parts of the worldThe region is arid so few rivers flow the entire yearTigris and the Euphrates RiversCalled the “Fertile Crescent”Worlds first civilizations developed hereValleys are fertile, well- watered and good for agricultureJordan RiverForms the boundary between Israel and JordanDead Sea –Land locked salt lake.Only bacteria can live there.Lowest place on earth. It is 1,349 feet below sea level
14Resources Oil (most important resource) Found on the Arabian Peninsula, Iran and IraqAlso found along coast of Persian Gulf and in Persian Gulf itselfMore than ½ of the world’s oil comes from the Middle EastOPECOrganization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesRegulate supply and prices of oil
15Resources Water The most valuable resource in Southwest Asia Turkey, Iran, Lebanon and Afghanistan water is plentifulIt is harnessed for hydroelectricityElsewhere water is a scarce resource that must be constantly guarded and carefully usedOther resources such as coal, copper, potash and phosphates
16Arid Lands Southwest Asia is extremely arid (dry) Receive less than 18 inches of precipitation a yearMost of the land is covered in sand dunes and salt flats.Rivers do not flow year-aroundVegetation and animals living in the desert can survive on little water and in extreme temperatures.Irrigation is important
17Other types of Climate Mediterranean climate Highland climates Land is green and lushHighland climatesAreas in the mountains of Southwest Asia have a cool climate
18Deserts Limit Movement Rub al-Khali (empty quarter)Largest Sand desert in the worldCalled “place where no one comes out,” is a vastdesertSize of Texas.The temperature can exceed 150° degreesFahrenheitSand dunes up to 800 feet highAn–Nafud desertHas several oasisHas severe sandstorms and brutal heatSyrian desertseparate coastal regions of Lebanon, Israel, andSyria from Tigris and Euphrates valleysNegev desertoccupies Israel, produces crops through irrigation
20Salt DesertsLands in the rain shadow of a mountain range are usually aridIn Iran, mountains block rain and dry winds increase evaporation. So when winds evaporate the moisture in the soil, chemical salts remain creating salt flatPast-e Kavir – central IranPast- e Luf –eastern Iran
21Semiarid LandsOn the edge of the desert are semi-arid (partly dry) landsWarm to hot summers with enough rain for shrubs and grassesCotton and wheat can be grown hereGood pasture for animalsIn Turkey they herd mohair goats
22Well-watered coast lands Along the Mediterranean and across most of Turkey, hot summers and rainy winters create good climate for fruits, olives and vegetablesFarmers can grow crops year roundTigris and Euphrates flood yearlySite of intensive farmingTurkey and Iraq have created dams along rivers to provide irrigation all year.
23Providing Precious Water Critical resource is waterFresh water is available only in small amounts and not consistentlyTo meet the needs of large farms and from growing population, countries must construct dams and irrigation systems.
241. Drip irrigation places water just at the root zone, reducing evaporation of precious water. Thissystem is located in the Negev Desert in Israel.2. A bag of water is collected by using this pump. Itis a part of a qanat—a system of undergroundbrick-lined tunnels and wells that collect runoffwater from the mountains.3. This irrigation canal in Oman has delivered waterfor over a thousand years. The canals are carefullymaintained to provide water for agriculture.4. A noria—or waterwheel run by the flow of water orby animal power—is used to lift water from the riverto the fields. These two are located in Syria on theOrontes River.
25Dams and Irrigation systems Ancient practices for providing water work well for small fields but are not efficient for large-scale farmingDams and Irrigation systems must be constructedExamples:Turkeyis building a series of dams and a man-made lake using water from the Euphrates RiverCountries downstream are mad because they will lose the use of waterSome countries even threaten war.IsraelNational Water Carrier Project in Israel carries water from the north to the south. It is used for drinking and irrigation.Is a source of international conflict because water sources flow through many countries
26Modern Water Technology Drip irrigation – using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve waterDesalinization-removing salt from water using sophisticated treatmentsNot used for farming/used for waste waterWaste water is treatedExpensiveFossil water – water from aquifers. But only years of that supply remains.
27Oil from the SandFields discovered in Southwest Asia contain about ½ of all petroleum reserves in the world.Petroleum is the source of gasoline for cars, heating oil, and used to make fertilizers and plastics.Southwest Asia is a very important region economically.
28Forming PetroleumDead plant and animal remains mingled with sand and mud on the bottom of the sea over time, pressure and heat transformed the material into hydrocarbons , which form the chemical basis of oil and natural gasOil and gas are trapped in rockEngineers use sophisticated equipment to extract, or remove oil
29Early ExplorationIndustrialization and the invention of the automobile made petroleum a highly desired resource.First oil discovered in Southwest Asia was in 1908 in IranIn 1938, oil companies found more oil fields in the Arabian Peninsula and Persian GulfIn 1948, oil companies discovered portions of what would become one of world’s largest oil fields at al-Ghawar. The field contains more than ¼ of Saudi Arabia’s reserves of oil
30Transporting Oil Crude oil- petroleum that has not been processed Refinery – converts the crude oil into useful productsPipelines transport the crude oil either to refineries or to ports where oil is picked up by tankers and moved to other places for processing.
31Risks of Transporting Oil Oil spillsLargest oil spill was in 1991240 million gallons spilled into the Persian Gulf during Gulf WarPipes are monitored for drops in pressure to check for leaksOcean-going tankers are at a much higher risk for causing pollution.Collisions or running aground