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North and South U.S. History Chapter 14. New Inventions A steam-powered locomotive engine pulling rail cars transformed railroads into practical transportation.

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Presentation on theme: "North and South U.S. History Chapter 14. New Inventions A steam-powered locomotive engine pulling rail cars transformed railroads into practical transportation."— Presentation transcript:

1 North and South U.S. History Chapter 14

2 New Inventions A steam-powered locomotive engine pulling rail cars transformed railroads into practical transportation Two sets of tracks were laid; one in each direction

3 New Inventions Railroads threatened workers who moved freight by wagon and those who invested in canals Competition from railroads might cause them to lose investments

4 New Inventions Speed was key to successful trade at sea Clipper ships broke every speed record; helped the US gain a large share of the world’s sea trade

5 Northern Economy Expands Factories began to use steam power and could be built almost anywhere Water-powered factories needed to be built along banks of swiftly- flowing rivers

6 Factory Conditions Become Worse Laborers worked longer hours for lower wages Workers often lived in dark, dingy houses by the factory Entire families were hired to work in factories

7 Workers Join Together Artisans, or skilled workers, won better pay because of their skills Trade Unions organized workers to work for improvements in working conditions

8 Workers Join Together Organized factory workers won the right to strike in 1842 Strike: refusal to work as a protest against specific conditions

9 New Wave of Immigrants Irish and German immigrants increased in 1840 “Nativist” was a group that wanted laws to limit immigration Know-Nothing Party: hostile to immigrants

10 African Americans Discrimination: policy or an attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups of people African Americans faced harsh discrimination in the South States limited the rights of free African Americans

11 African Americans Even skilled African Americans had difficulty finding jobs in the North School was seen as the best way to achieve success in a job

12 Cotton Kingdom 1793: Whitney’s cotton gin had enormous effect on southern economy Profits increased; more cotton cleaned in same amount of time with the gin Plantations extended as far west as Texas

13 Agricultural Economy The South’s economy was based on agriculture; climate ideal for raising major cash crops and livestock Planters wanted to invest in more land and more slaves

14 Limited Industry in South Agricultural tools were manufactured, but most manufactured goods were purchased from the North Slaves had no money to buy anything; lowered demand for manufactured goods

15 Economic Dependence Southern planters borrowed money from northern banks to expand plantations Cotton was “king”

16 White Southerners “Cottonocracy”: very few but very wealthy families who made huge amounts of money from cotton

17 White Southerners Small Farmers: “plain folk” who owned the land they farmed; worked along with any slaves; 75% of white population Poor Whites: lowest on social ladder; rented land they farmed

18 Life Without Freedom Slave Codes: kept slaves from either running away or rebelling Crime for slaves to know how to read or write

19 Resistance Against Slavery Slaves resisted by breaking tools, destroying crops, trying to escape to the North Nat Turner led a major slave revolt; revolts were rare and had no chance of success

20 Coping with Slavery Religion offered hope Preserved African traditions Protected from mistreatment by owner's need to keep them healthy and productive

21 Review Questions What made it possible for southern planters to boost their profits after 1793? A. Planters started raising livestock B. Workers planted less cotton and more rice and sugar cane C. Workers cleaned more cotton in the same amount of time with a gin.

22 Review Questions What made it possible for southern planters to boost their profits after 1793? C. Workers cleaned more cotton in the same amount of time with a gin.

23 Review Questions This group wanted laws to limit immigration A. Nativist B. Trade Union C. Artisan

24 Review Questions This group wanted laws to limit immigration A. Nativist

25 Review Questions Refusal to work as a protest against specific conditions A. Trade Union B. Strike C. Famine

26 Review Questions Refusal to work as a protest against specific conditions A. Trade Union B. Strike C. Famine

27 Review Questions Skilled Worker A. Nativist B. Artisan C. Unionist

28 Review Questions Skilled Worker A. Nativist B. Artisan C. Unionist

29 Review Questions An agricultural economy developed in the South because A. the land and climate were ideal for cotton, rice and livestock B. Southerners wanted to live on estates like European royalty did C. Other US climates were not as well suited for agriculture

30 Review Questions An agricultural economy developed in the South because A. the land and climate were ideal for cotton, rice and livestock

31 Review Questions What was true about the earliest American railroads? A. They initially moved slower than canal transportation did B. They were often built with a separate track for each direction C. They threw off sparks that sometimes set buildings on fire

32 Review Questions What was true about the earliest American railroads? B. They were often built with a separate track for each direction

33 Review Questions Which statement BEST illustrates the South’s dependence on the North? A. Northerners bought manufactured goods from southern factories B. Southerners relied on northern factory models C. Southern planters borrowed money from northern banks to buy farm tools

34 Review Questions Which statement BEST illustrates the South’s dependence on the North? C. Southern planters borrowed money from northern banks to buy farm tools

35 Review Questions Which of the following statements does NOT describe factory conditions in the 1840s? A. Laborers worked longer hours for lower wages B. Workers lived in well-built factory housing C. Factory owners hired entire families

36 Review Questions Which of the following statements does NOT describe factory conditions in the 1840s? A. Laborers worked longer hours for lower wages B. Workers lived in well-built factory housing C. Factory owners hired entire families

37 Review Questions Which statement does NOT describe most small farmers in the South? A. They rented the land they worked B. They worked alongside their slaves in the fields C. They owned one or two slaves

38 Review Questions Which statement does NOT describe most small farmers in the South? A. They rented the land they worked B. They worked alongside their slaves in the fields C. They owned one or two slaves

39 Review Questions What is one way that steam-powered machinery changed manufacturing? A. Machines produced more goods at a higher cost B. Factories could be built almost anywhere C. Machines were more expensive to run

40 Review Questions What is one way that steam- powered machinery changed manufacturing? B. Factories could be built almost anywhere

41 Review Questions What is an organization of workers? A. Artisan B. Famine C. Trade Union

42 Review Questions What is an organization of workers? A. Artisan B. Famine C. Trade Union

43 Review Questions By 1860, free African Americans in the South A. made up one-third of the South’s population B. faced harsh discrimination C. had the same rights as poor whites

44 Review Questions By 1860, free African Americans in the South B. faced harsh discrimination

45 Review Questions Clipper ships helped the United States A. ship more cargo than British steamships carried B. develop industry in the South C. gain a large share of the world’s sea trade

46 Review Questions Clipper ships helped the United States C. gain a large share of the world’s sea trade

47 Review Questions All of the following were methods that African Americans used to resist slavery EXCEPT A. breaking tools and destroying crops B. trying to escape to the North C. becoming skilled artisans

48 Review Questions All of the following were methods that African Americans used to resist slavery EXCEPT A. breaking tools and destroying crops B. trying to escape to the North C. becoming skilled artisans

49 Review Questions Who would have said that the railroad competition would cause them to lose money? A. factory owners B. canal investors C. telegraph investors

50 Review Questions Who would have said that the railroad competition would cause them to lose money? A. factory owners B. canal investors C. telegraph investors

51 Review Questions What was the primary purpose of the slave codes? A. to prevent slaves from running away B. to guarantee good working conditions for slaves C. to prevent slaves from practicing their religion

52 Review Questions What was the primary purpose of the slave codes? A. to prevent slaves from running away

53 Review Questions Which list classifies groups of white southerners beginning with the wealthiest? A. the Cottonocracy, small farmers, poor whites B. the Cottonocracy, poor whites, small farmers C. small farmers, the Cottonocracy, poor whites

54 Review Questions Which list classifies groups of white southerners beginning with the wealthiest? A. the Cottonocracy, small farmers, poor whites

55 Review Questions What did factory workers hope to achieve by forming trade unions? A. an end to the factory system B. cooperation with factory owners C. improvements in working conditions

56 Review Questions What did factory workers hope to achieve by forming trade unions? A. an end to the factory system B. cooperation with factory owners C. improvements in working conditions

57 Review Questions What victory did organized factory workers gain in 1842? A. right to strike B. training programs C. eight-hour workday

58 Review Questions What victory did organized factory workers gain in 1842? A. right to strike B. training programs C. eight-hour workday

59 Review Questions Which of the following was NOT a result of the invention of the cotton gin? A. Cotton profits increased enormously B. Cotton plantations extended as far west as Texas C. Cotton growers used profits to build more textile mills

60 Review Questions Which of the following was NOT a result of the invention of the cotton gin? A. Cotton profits increased enormously B. Cotton plantations extended as far west as Texas C. Cotton growers used profits to build more textile mills

61 Review Questions Which worker would have been MOST likely to object to the new railroads? A. wagon driver B. farm worker C. telegraph operator

62 Review Questions Which worker would have been MOST likely to object to the new railroads? A. wagon driver

63 Review Questions Nat Turner resisted slavery by A. writing antislavery literature B. leading a major slave revolt C. escaping to the North

64 Review Questions Nat Turner resisted slavery by B. leading a major slave revolt

65 Review Questions Which group made up about 75% of the white population in the South? A. Small Farmers B. Wealthy Planters C. Poor Whites

66 Review Questions Which group made up about 75% of the white population in the South? A. Small Farmers B. Wealthy Planters C. Poor Whites

67 Review Questions What products did southerners buy largely from the North? A. manufactured goods B. cotton C. lumber

68 Review Questions What products did southerners buy largely from the North? A. manufactured goods

69 Review Questions How did the practice of slavery hurt the development of southern industry? A. Planters feared that factory jobs would encourage slave revolts B. Slaves were unwilling to operate factory machinery C. Slaves had no money to buy manufactured goods.

70 Review Questions How did the practice of slavery hurt the development of southern industry? C. Slaves had no money to buy manufactured goods

71 Review Questions Which of the following was overall the BEST protection for enslaved African Americans against mistreatment? A. Owner’s needs to keep the slaves healthy and productive B. Federal laws C. Slave revolts

72 Review Questions Which of the following was overall the BEST protection for enslaved African Americans against mistreatment? A. Owner’s needs to keep the slaves healthy and productive B. Federal laws C. Slave revolts

73 Review Questions Which statement describes the experiences of free African Americans in the South? A. States limited their rights B. Slave owners forced them to move to other states C. They lived far from the cities

74 Review Questions Which statement describes the experiences of free African Americans in the South? A. States limited their rights B. Slave owners forced them to move to other states C. They lived far from the cities

75 Good Luck on Your Test!


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