2 Vocabulary Industrial Revolution Interchangeable parts Mass production Eli WhitneyRhode Island SystemLowell SystemTextileTelegraphSteel plowMechanical reaperCotton ginCotton beltYeomenPlantersSlave codes
3 Industrial Revolution Mid-1700s, begins in Britain with new machines, the textile (cloth) industryGradually begins to move into the U.S.After the War of 1812, industry takes off in the U.S.(shortages during the war led to need for manufactured goods…)Eli Whitney comes up with the idea of mass production using interchangeable partsUsing interchangeable parts made machines easier to assemble and broken parts easier to fix
4 Mills Change Workers’ Lives Workers no longer needed the specific skills of craftspeople to run the machines of the new millsMany mill owners in the U.S. could not find enough people to work in factories b/c other jobs were availableRhode Island System: Samuel Slater’s strategy of hiring families and dividing factory work into simple tasksLowell System: Based on water powered textile mills that employed young, unmarried women from local farms
5 Transportation Revolution 1800s – brings a period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportationSteamboats – Increased trade and profits because goods could be moved quickly and more cheaplyRailroads – Linked major cities together and economy flourishedCoal instead of woodNeed for steel
6 InventionsTelegraph/Morse code – 1832 (led to major advancements in communication)Steam power – Water powered factories had to be built near streams or waterfalls. Steam power allowed for factories to be built anywhere. Leads to more factories, more places.Farm equipment – Deere, McCormickSewing machine
7 The Cotton IndustryCotton demand began increasing in the 1790s because of the growing amount of textile factories in the North and Britain.1793 – Eli Whitney – cotton ginAll of a sudden, cotton is much easier to produce and much more profitableRESULT: COTTON BOOM IN THE SOUTH-secondary result – big increase in slavery
8 Southern Society Four main “classes” of southern society: Planters – owned many slaves, large plantations, mansionsYeoman – white southerners, small farmsSlavesFree African-Americans – faced discrimination even though they were free
9 SlaveryOn small farms, a few slaves might work along with white owners.On large plantations, gang-labor system used in fields; some slaves in planters home.Skilled slaves might earn a little $$, eventually buy freedom.Slave codes –strict laws designed to keep slaves under controlUprisings – Nat Turner rebellionIn 1831, Nat Turner led a group of slaves in Virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families. Turner’s group killed about 60 white people, but more than 100 innocent slaves were killed in an attempt to stop the rebellion.