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© West Educational Publishing Conflict, Stress, and Coping C HAPTER 16 S tress and conflict are part of everyday life. Those who can use stress as a motivator.

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Presentation on theme: "© West Educational Publishing Conflict, Stress, and Coping C HAPTER 16 S tress and conflict are part of everyday life. Those who can use stress as a motivator."— Presentation transcript:

1 © West Educational Publishing Conflict, Stress, and Coping C HAPTER 16 S tress and conflict are part of everyday life. Those who can use stress as a motivator can achieve greater things. EXIT

2 © West Educational Publishing Frustration Anxiety Stress Conflict Click on a term for more information. EXIT

3 © West Educational Publishing Some can be serious, as when airline flights are cancelled or talents or abilities don’t measure up to expectations. Frustration Frustration may be defined as the emotion produced when we are blocked from reaching our goals. Most frustrations are minor (busy signals, traffic slowdowns, late arrivals, etc.). Click on a term for more information. EXIT

4 © West Educational Publishing Conflict Conflict arises when a person needs to decide between two alternatives. Types of conflict: EXIT

5 © West Educational Publishing Approach-Approach The person is attracted to two goals. The approach - approach conflict is not all bad. You have to decide between two attractive choices. EXIT

6 © West Educational Publishing Approach - Avoidance The person is attracted to one goal but it comes with a negative aspect. The approach - avoidance conflict can be distressing. EXIT

7 © West Educational Publishing Avoidance - Avoidance The person has to choose between them. The avoidance - avoidance conflict presents two undesirable goals. EXIT

8 © West Educational Publishing Double Approach - Avoidance The person has two goals, each has both good and bad characteristics. The double approach - avoidance conflict is the most common. Click on a term for more information. EXIT

9 © West Educational Publishing Anxiety Anxiety is a feeling of hopelessness, a feeling of fear or fright. It often follows feelings of frustration and conflict. Anxiety attacks can produce physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, chest pain, breathlessness or headache. Click on a term for more information. EXIT

10 © West Educational Publishing When stress is good and leads to something desirable such as studying for a big exam and then receiving a good grade on the exam, it is called eustress. When the stress has negative effects such as confusion, an inability to make decisions, and illness, it is called distress. Stress Stress is defined as the physical pressure and strain that result from change. EXIT

11 © West Educational Publishing Sequence of Steps in the Fight or Flight Behaviors 1. The brain appraises a situation as threatening and dangerous. 2. The lower brain structure secretes a stress hormone. 3. The stress hormone signals the adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline. 4. This causes the muscles to tense, the heart to beat faster, and the liver to send out sugar to be used in the muscles. Fight or Flight EXIT

12 © West Educational Publishing The General Adaptation Syndrome Defined as a series of stages the body goes through when exposed to stressful situations. 1. The alarm stage is the initial stage where the body prepares for attack—either psychological or physical. 2. The second stage is called the stage of resistance. The body uses up a great amount of energy to prepare for the stressor. 3. The third stage is exhaustion. It is marked by body exhaustion and health problems. AlarmResistance Exhaustion EXIT

13 © West Educational Publishing Some Psychological Stressors for High School Students Life EventStress Points Divorce of parents98 Expulsion from school79 Major injury or illness77 Getting a job62 Major illness of close friend56 Peer difficulties45 Moving away41 Christmas30 Vacation25 Traffic ticket22 Click on a term for more information. EXIT

14 © West Educational Publishing Coping with Stress Issue of Control People deal better with stress if they have some degree of control in a stressful situation. Self-Concept If people don’t feel confident (have a positive self-concept), they will become anxious and withdrawn. Self-Esteem Worthwhile feelings people have. If we are expected to meet impossible standards, we often stop trying at all. EXIT

15 © West Educational Publishing Regression Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: RationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression Click on a term to have it defined. EXIT

16 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Pushing painful material out of consciousness RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

17 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Refusing to admit a problem exists RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

18 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Venting feelings on something not related to the frustration RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

19 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Expressing the opposite of what one feels RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

20 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Taking all feelings out of a frustrating situation RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

21 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Taking on a punishing person’s characteristics RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

22 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Moving backward and acting as a helpless child RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

23 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Explaining a situation to avoid responsibility RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

24 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Assigning to others our own thoughts and feelings RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

25 © West Educational Publishing Psychological Defense Mechanisms Psychological defense mechanisms are distortions (actions) that keep people psychologically stable. Examples include: Click on a term to have it defined. Channeling emotional energy into constructive or creative activity RegressionRationalizationProjectionSublimation Reaction Formation Intellectualization Identification with the Aggressor DenialDisplacement Repression EXIT

26 © West Educational Publishing Healthy Characteristics Take credit for successes and responsibility for failures. Learn from both. Appreciate life. Don’t take yourself too seriously. Keep a sense of humor. Accept yourself. Take control of your life as much as possible. Develop a sense of independence. EXIT

27 © West Educational Publishing Substance Abuse  occurs when the use of drugs interferes with daily life.  occurs when the person has symptoms when using the drug.  occurs when the person uses more and more drugs.  occurs when the person spends large amounts of time in drug use. Substance abuse Substance dependence EXIT

28 © West Educational Publishing  heavy alcohol intake affects the liver and brain cells  provides non-nutritional calories  can lead to alcohol withdrawal delirium and hallucinations  synergistic effect increases dangers of alcohol and barbiturates when taken together Alcoholism Chemical effects: alcohol is a depressant (too much will lead to unconsciousness). Absorption takes 2-6 hours, depending on weight, amount, food intake, etc. Physical effects: EXIT

29 © West Educational Publishing Causes of Alcoholism No one knows for sure, but factors that may be responsible include  heredity  environment  genetic defects  social training EXIT

30 © West Educational Publishing Indicators of Alcoholism  Frequent drinking binges. Drunkenness more than once a week.  A steady increase in the amount of alcohol drunk.  Drinking in the morning.  Being drunk at school or at work.  Blackouts or not remembering events when drunk.  Drinking when confronting a crisis. EXIT

31 © West Educational Publishing Marijuana  Marijuana distorts and confuses the perception of the world.  The short-term memory system is directly affected. Nicotine  Nicotine is found in tobacco products. It increases blood pressure and heart rate. It also leads to higher risks of heart disease and lung disease. EXIT

32 © West Educational Publishing Amphetamines  “Uppers” create a sense of excitement, freedom, and energy.  People build tolerance for the drug.  Continued usage leads to strange images, convulsions, and paranoia. Cocaine  Cocaine, unlike alcohol, is a stimulant.  Crack is a form of purified cocaine. EXIT

33 © West Educational Publishing  Steroids are used to increase body mass and muscular size.  Short-term use can cause people to lose control of emotions.  Long-term use can cause serious physical problems including heart trouble and infertility. LSD Opiates  Opiates are sedatives that depress the brain.  They create a physical dependence.  LSD produces hallucinations and marked changes in behavior. Steroids EXIT

34 © West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Frustration Conflict Anxiety Stress Coping with Stress Substance Abuse Fight vs. Flight General Adaptation Syndrome Psychological Stressors { { Psychological Defense Mechanisms Healthy Characteristics { Alcohol, Marijuana, Nicotine, Amphetamines, Cocaine, Opiates, LSD, Steroids EXIT


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