Presentation on theme: "Leadership and Administrative Dynamics Eckerd Fall 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Leadership and Administrative Dynamics Eckerd Fall 2011
Agenda Myers Briggs exercise Read memos in class. Memo writing Bureaucracy Scientific Management Universal Management Principles Classical Theories in modern organizations Human Relations approaches Human Resources Model Open Systems Contemporary Developments Contingency Theories Organization theories
What is Myers Briggs Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology Father of Myers Briggs Type Indicator Jung believed: Eight psychological types (for our purposes two) Introverted and extroverted. Four main functions of consciousness Two perceiving functions – sensation and intuition Two judging functions – thinking and feeling Carl Jung
Myers Briggs There are certain preferred ways of thinking and acting. There is not a better or worse type. Four pairs of opposites equal 16 possible psychological types.
Why is this important to a leader? It is important to know yourself as a supervisor. It is equally important to know who you are supervising.
Judging Perceiving Thinking Feeling Sensing Intuition Introvert Extrovert Where do I get energy? How do I take in information? How do I organize my world? How do I make decisions?
Judging Perceiving Thinking Feeling Sensing Intuition Introvert Extrovert Work in groups or Work alone Facts or 30,000 feet in the air Solve the problem or prefer processing and flexibility Business decision or People decision EXTREMES
Pre-Scientific Management (Pre-1800s) Classical Management (1800-1930) Administrative Theory/Universalism (Henri Fayol) Scientific Management (Federick Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt-“Gantt Chart”) Structuralist School (Max Weber-“bureaucracy”) Neoclassical Management and Organization Theory (1930-1960s) Human Relations School (Human Relations/Hawthorne Experiments) Behavioral School (Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Rensis Likert, Chris Argyris, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland) Modern Management and Organization Theory (1960-2000s) Management Science (OM, MRP, JIT, CI, TQM) Systems Theory (Peter Senge)(Subsystems, Open/Closed) Contingency Theory (Open Systems Planning, Organizational Design, Leadership)
Extraverted/Introverted (E/I) In general: At work Introvert Extrovert Reflects then actsACTION! Needs time aloneNeeds people Deep interactionBreadth of knowledge Prefers depth of knowledgeFrequent interaction
Extrovert – 70% US population Let’s talk about it. (extracts information externally) Loud Prefer environments where co-workers are talking. Do not like long intervals of working alone. Want to work with other people in teams. Introvert – 30% of US population Let me think about it. Quiet please! Prefer to work alone. Even if they know working in a team is important, they will still need “alone time” to re- energize. Extrovert / Introvert
E Seems to have decided but are just processing out loud. Can overwhelm Can dominate the conversation I Seems to have decided but is really just thinking. Staff observe introverts to be aloof and unfriendly. If dismissed in discussions, they will retreat and not provide valuable input. Dark Side – particularly in a leader
Sensing/intuition (S/N) How do we gather information At work Sensing Intuition Details/factabstract, theoretical Information that touches the 5 sensesunconscious mind hunches
Sensing Work NEEDs to be organized from point A to point B and so on. Loves policies, procedures, repetition and rules Have to start from point A. Intuitive Thinks conceptually at the 30,000 foot level. Policies, procedures, repetition and rules are boring. May start by considering the outcome first.
S Do the work. Prefer to work at one project at a time and even better if the projects are in order. Long-term stamina to complete a project. I Conceive the work Major multi-taskers Energy bursts
S Future oriented tasks are not appealing. Can’t see the forest for the trees syndrome. I Details and simplistic explanations are points of frustration. Get to the bottom line! May make decisions that are unrealistic based on what could be vs. what is. Dark Side
Feeling/Thinking (T/F) How do we judge? How do we make decisions? Once we get the data from either sensing or intuition Thinking Feeling Logicalempathy Rationalconsensus “Business approach”balance harmony
Dark Side T Can be perceived as uncaring and cold Staff may have hurt feelings No crying! F May appear naïve Poor decision making to spare feelings Time not effectively utilized trying to make staff feel better.
Judgment/perception (J/P) How do we judge? How do we make decisions? Once we get the data from either sensing or intuition Judging Perceiving I like to have things decided. I appear to be task oriented. I like to make lists of things to do. I like to get my work done before playing. I plan work to avoid rushing just before a deadline. Sometimes I focus so much on the goal that I miss new information. I like to stay open to respond to whatever happens. I appear to be loose and casual. I like to keep plans to a minimum. I like to approach work as play or mix work and play. I work in bursts of energy. I am stimulated by an approaching deadline. Sometimes I stay open to new information so long I miss making decisions when they are needed.
Judging vs. Perceiving J Makes decision in order to solve the problem and move on. Strong planners Strong organizers Work is much more important than personal life/having a good time. Delays decision making to gain more information. Last minute vs. planners Personal life/having a good time is more important than work. P
J Routine Order Do not like open ended issues Can motivate themselves The goal is getting there. Adaptable Process and processing is good. Need motivation from others. Life is a sojourn and so is work. P
J Resistance to change Decisions made to quickly Focus is not at 30,000 foot level enough May not get things accomplished in a timely way. May be off on another tangent while staff are still working on the first idea. P Dark Side
CLASSICAL Context: factory work, under-educated workers. (assembly lines) People can be organized through measured steps to deliver the best outcome. Staff do not participate in decision making (to varying degrees). Hierarchical. Informal peer leaders. Routine jobs. Division of labor. Functional departments. Hierarchical supervision. Management by control. Administrative setting, well-educated professionals. People need to be challenged, work together, trust each other. Staff participates in decision making (to varying degrees). Flatter organizational structure Formal teams. Complex jobs. Continuous learning. Ecosystem is world-wide MODERN Theories compared
Early 20 th Century thinking FayolWeberTaylor Refined at the turn of the century, by Frederick Taylor (scientific management), Henri Fayol (principles and elements of management), and Max Weber (bureaucracy), this is the management philosophy that still dominates our organizational landscape.
Bureaucracy and Max Weber (I864-1920) Formalized, hierarchical, specialized with a clear functional division of labor and demarcation of jurisdiction, standardized, rule based, and impersonal. Professional, full-time administrative staff with lifelong employment, organized careers, salaries, and pensions, appointed to office and rewarded on the basis of formal education, merit, and tenure. Normative structure where government is founded on authority, that is, the belief in a legitimate, rational-legal political order.
In 1847, a professor in political science at Heidelberg, Robert von Mohl, observed that: "the privileged classes complained of loss of privileges, the commercial classes of interference in commerce, artisans of paperwork, scientists of ignorance, statesmen of delay."
Weber Legal guarantees against arbitrariness Recruitment based on merit Social and Economic differences can be mitigated through the law
Changes in human services decision making Public administration is a “supermarket” of services Citizens/clients are “customers” Flatter decision making, power sharing internally and externally Privatization
What are rules? Rules can assist with interpretation of ambiguous worlds. Rules define the world. roles, rights, obligations, interests, values, worldviews, and memory Rules can mean change. Rules can fulfill the “invisible veil” Principle. Rules need flexibility and discretion. Rules are not inflexible, people are inflexible.
Scientific Management Taylor (1856-1915) mass production low cost, acceptable quality organizing large numbers of under-educated and/or non- English speaking immigrants non-technical rural workers for urban technical work.
Fayol (1841-1925) Planning Organizing Staffing Budgeting Coordinating Controlling Fayol considered the need for staff to participate in decision making. What do managers do? What do companies do? Production, Selling/marketing Finance Security Accounting Management
Fayol continued 1. division of labor 2. the establishment of authority 3. the enforcement of discipline 4. unified command, one employee reports to only one supervisor 5. unity of direction 6. subordination of individual interests to the interest of the organization 7. fair salaries 8. Centralized authority 9. Scalar hierarchy, in which each employee is aware of his or her place and duties 10. a sense of order and purpose 11. Equity and fairness in dealings between staff and managers 12. stability of jobs and positions 13. development of individual initiative 14. esprit de corps
Elton Mayo Western Electric experiments Conclusions Group activity, collaboration and the role of informal teams. Social world of adults Belonging Complaining Social demands Human Relations Approaches
BEHAVIORAL APPROACH Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Rensis Likert, Chris Argyris, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y Buying a pair of hands Building people
Douglas McGregor Human Resources Approach Theory Y Theory X Work is Natural Self- Direction Self- Direction Seek Responsibility Seek Responsibility Good Decisions Widely Dispersed Good Decisions Widely Dispersed Avoid Work Avoid Work Must be Controlled Must be Controlled Avoid Responsibility Avoid Responsibility Seek Security
Chris Argyris – classical organization structures lead to immature, dependent staff Assumptions (values)ActionActual Results Results Gap Desired Outcome DOUBLE LOOP SINGLE LOOP
Teams COMMUNICATE more than individuals operating alone. Leadership is key element to implementing and sustaining a learning environment. Leaders are responsible for promoting an atmosphere conducive to learning CREATIVE TENSION - Represents difference between the “vision” of where the organization could be and the reality of the current organizational situation. Open Systems Peter Senge
Senge Systems Theory is NOT a prescriptive management theory Attempts to widen lens through which we examine and understand organizational behavior The Learning Organization Synergy Nonsummativity Interdependence Equifinality Requisite Variety Emphasizes COMMUNICATION in the Learning Process Organizations cannot separate from their environment Organizational teams or subsystems cannot operate in isolation
Professional Bureaucracies (hospitals, universities)Community-Based Organizations (small non-profits)Total Quality ManagementThe Excellence Movement (In Search of Excellence)Business Process Reengineering Contemporary Developments
Taylor to TQM Customer is always rightUpstream quality, not downstream fixingConsistency in productionPeople work within systems not “how I think it is best to do it”Continuous improvements of processesStaff participateCommitment from the top to the bottom
BPR (downsizing) Addresses silo “thinking” between functions. Eliminates what is not needed.
Contingency Theory There is no one best way to structure and manage organizations. Structure and management are contingent on the nature of the environment in which the organization is situated. Argues for “finding the best communication structure under a given set of environmental circumstances.”