Presentation on theme: "Classical Organizational Theory Taken From Educational Administration Concepts & Practices Chapter 1- 2 EDA 6061 Educational Organization and Admin. Lee."— Presentation transcript:
1Classical Organizational Theory Taken From Educational Administration Concepts & Practices Chapter 1- 2EDA 6061Educational Organization and Admin.Lee Droegemueller, ProfessorSpring 00
2Management Perspectives Scientific Management.Historically-focused on management of workers and work.Administrative Management.Focused on how the overall organization should be structured.
3Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor - study the “one best way”.Four principles of scientific management.Scientific job analysis.Selection of personnel.Management cooperation.Functional supervising.Soldiering – working below your capacity.
4Administrative Management Primary contributors:Henri FayolLuther GulickMax WeberHenri Fayol’s five basic management functions: a) planning, b) organizing, c) commanding, d) coordinating e) controlling
5Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management Remuneration.Centralization.Scalar chain.Order.Stability of personnel.Initiative.Esprit de corps.Division of work.Authority.Discipline.Unity of command.Unity of direction.Subordination of individual interest.
6Luther Gulik Augmented Fayol’s five basic management functions. POSDCoRB.Seven functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.
7Max WeberA concept of bureaucracy based upon a comprehensive set of rational guidelines.Weber’s “ideal” bureaucracy and Fayol’s fourteen principles of management laid the foundation for contemporary organizational theory.Psychological and social factors in the workplace were ignored.
8Human Relations Approach Started with a series of studies conducted at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric.Located near Chicago.Conducted by Elton Mayo and his associates.
9Hawthorne Studies Relay Assembly Test Room Second Relay Assembly Group Mica-Splitting GroupThe typewriting GroupBank Wiring Observation Room21126 employees interviewedWhat employees liked and disliked about their work
10Hawthorne StudiesBoth control and experimental groups improved when studied and interviewedHuman-social element operated in the workplace.Group norms developedIn any different or experimental undertaking – improvement may take placeCalled “The Hawthorne Effect”
11Hawthorne StudiesThese studies indicated that the understanding of human behavior, especially group behavior, from the perspective of management was firmly established.
12Contributors-human Relations Approach Kurt Lewin:Field theory and group dynamics.Democratic and authoritarian groups.Carl Rogers:Internal frame reference of the individual.Jacob Moreno:Interpersonal relationships between groups.Groups with individuals that have similar affinities to each other will perform better.
13Contributors-human Relations Approach William Whyte:Group conflict, status, workflowFound selective preferences worked best.George Homans:Theory of Small Groups
14Assumptions of Human Relations Approach Employees motivated by social and psychological needs and by economic incentives.These needs are more important than physical conditions of the work environment.
15Behavioral Science Approach Formed because of the inadequacy of human relations and classical mang. approaches.Chester Barnard:EffectivenessEfficiency
16Behavioral Science Approach E. Wight Bakke:Fusion ProcessThe fusion of the personalizing process of the individual and the socializing processes of the organization is accomplished through the bonds of the organization
17Behavioral Science Approach Chris Argyris:Incompatibility of the between growth and development of the individual’s maturing personality and the repressive nature of the formal organization.“Organization Man” concept
18Behavioral Science Approach Gettzels and Guba:Education study.Nomothetic Dimension.Idiographic Dimension.Behavior in any social system in an organization can be seen as interaction between personal needs and institutional goals.
19Behavioral Science Approach Abraham Maslow:Five categoriesPhysical - Air, water, food, rest, and reproductive abilitySafety - protection from threats of well-beingSocial -Self-esteem the desire to believe that we are worthwhile, valuable peopleSelf-actualization - the desire to develop our potential to the maximum
20Douglas McGregorTheories of management developed by Douglas McGregor depicting two extreme positions representing the options available for the management of people.Theory X describes workers who are disinterested in work and need manager control through incentives and punishments to be motivated.
21Douglas McGregorTheory Y is the management view that workers are self directed, intrinsically motivated, and want to take the responsibility for work and productivity.Self-actualization: A term used by Maslow for the effort of the individual to fulfill his or her potential.Theory Z: Is there one and what is it?
22Frederick HerzbergHygiene Factors: factors that cause or prevent job dissatisfaction.Motivation Factors: factors that cause job satisfaction.
23Rensis Likert Goals of the individual and goals of the organization. System 1. Exploitive AuthoritativeSystem 2.System 3.System 4. Participative Group