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The History of Management. 4 Main Groups of Theories (6 actual theories altogether) Classical Behavioral Management Science Integrative: – Systems Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Management. 4 Main Groups of Theories (6 actual theories altogether) Classical Behavioral Management Science Integrative: – Systems Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Management

2 4 Main Groups of Theories (6 actual theories altogether) Classical Behavioral Management Science Integrative: – Systems Theory – Sociotechnical Theory – Contingency Theory

3 Copyright © 2009 South- Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. A–3 Classical Theory Classical Theorists (late 1800s, early 1900s) – Focus on the job itself and management functions to determine the best way to manage in all organizations. – 1-Scientific Management-What is the best way to maximize job performance? Fredrick Winslow Taylor – Father of Scientific Management – Focused on analyzing jobs and redesigning them so they could be accomplished more efficiently. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth – Work efficiency – They used time and motion studies to make jobs more efficient – They had 12 children (popularized in movies and the book, Cheaper by the Dozen) – Lillian was commonly refered to as the First Lady of Management – She lived to be 94 years old! Henry Gantt – Work scheduling-developed a method for scheduling work over a period of time.

4 Copyright © 2009 South- Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. A–4 Classical Theory (cont’d) – 2-Administrative Theory-Do we need some rules and regulations in management? Henri Fayol – Father of Modern Management – Came up with the “functions” of management-planning, organizing, controlling (he also used “coordinating and commanding” as well) Max Weber – Bureaucracy –rules need to be made so that all employees are treated fairly Chester Barnard – Authority and power-studied the “informal” rules-cliques Mary Parker Follett – Worker participation, conflict resolution, and shared goals – Stressed the importance of the people, not just the machines – Started what is now known as “employee participation”

5 Copyright © 2009 South- Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. A–5 Behavioral Theory Behavioral Theorists (mid to late 1900s) – Focus on people to determine the best way to manage in all organizations. People skills rather than technical skills. – Human Relations Movement (later, the Behavioral Science Approach) Elton Mayo – Hawthorne studies-how management treats their employees affects the employees’ performance. In fact, just studying people can increase their performance (called the “Hawthorne Effect”). Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of needs-Basic needs must be met first before employees will perform well, ie food, shelter, decent work environment, safety. Once those are met, they are able to focus on social needs, self-esteem needs, and finally, when all other needs are met, they can focus on creativity, skill development, getting a promotion etc. Douglas McGregor – Theory X (managers think that employees are lazy and will avoid work when they can) and Theory Y (managers think that employees want to work and are motivated by the satisfaction of doing a good job)

6 Copyright © 2009 South- Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. A–6 Management Science Management Science Theorists (after World War II) – Focus on the use of mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making. – Stresses decision-making and technical skills.

7 Copyright © 2009 South- Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. A–7 Integrative Perspective Systems Theory – Focuses on viewing the organization as a whole and as the interrelationship of its parts (subsystems). – Stresses the need for conceptual skills. Sociotechnical Theory – Focuses on integrating people and technology. Contingency Theory – Focuses on determining the best management approach for a given situation.

8 Copyright © 2009 South- Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. A–8 Exhibit A ● Comparing Theories

9 Copyright © 2009 South- Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. A–9 KEY TERMS classical theorists behavioral theorists management science theorists systems theorists sociotechnical theorists contingency theorists

10 “Who Am I?” I am known as the “Father of Scientific Management” I am one of the Classical Theorists Focused on analyzing jobs and redesigning them so they could be accomplished more efficiently. Frederick Winslow Taylor

11 “Who Am I?” I formed a team with my husband to study work efficiency. I was very busy with my 12 children and my career. I was known as the First Lady of Management. My husband’s first name was Frank. Lillian Gilbreth

12 “Who Am I?” I focused on work scheduling. I created a chart that is helpful when scheduling projects and work. The chart I created is called the Gantt chart. Henry Gantt

13 “Who Am I?” I am known as the Father of Modern Management I was part of the Administrative Theory group I came up with the “functions” of management-planning, organizing, controlling (I also used “coordinating and commanding” as well) Henri Fayol

14 “Who Am I?” I was one of the few women theorists I focused on worker participation, conflict resolution, and shared goals I developed what is now known as “employee participation” Mary Parker Follett

15 “Who Am I?” I was responsible for the Hawthorne studies Elton Mayo I developed Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor

16 “Who Am I?” I developed the “Hierarchy of Needs” theory Abraham Maslow

17 Answers 1.Frederick Winslow Taylor 2.Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 3.Henry Gantt 4.Henri Fayol 5.Mary Parker Follett 6.Elton Mayo 7.Douglas McGregor 8.Abraham Maslow


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