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Madeleine Vionnet & The Gibson Girl era By: Amanda Cardillo.

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1 Madeleine Vionnet & The Gibson Girl era By: Amanda Cardillo

2 Madeleine Vionnet “ Queen of the Bias Cut” Created outfits with Jacques Doucet in contrast of the Art Nouveau Movement Worked for Callot Soeurs in Paris and Kate Reilly in London Almost always used crepe, crepe de chine, gabardine and satin in her pieces Vionnet Fashion House founded in 1912 closed 2 years later because of WWI but reopens in 1918 Used the bias cut design with cowl and halter necks(became very popular) Smooth, sleek drapery close fitting to the body


4 Madeleine Vionnet (cont) Influenced by modern dancer Isadora Duncan Bias cut gowns became popular in the 1930s Worn by Katharine Hepburn, Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich Opened 50 Avenue Montaigne for her new emporium Worked for Callot Soeurs in Paris and Kate Reilly in London Creations were light and airy; modeled without corsets or busts Crème, tan and beige were common colors she used


6 The Gibson Girl (1890s) “Gibson Girl” created by Charles Dana Gibson represented independence and individuality for women Known as the Victorian Period Women started wearing hats instead of bonnets Leg of mutton, full and bishop sleeves were in style Tulip bell skirts and padded petticoats were the “trend”

7 1890s (cont) Focus on elaborate bodices rather than skirts Frills and collars were used to widen the shoulder Jacket bodices were widely used for evening gowns and tailor made suits for women A-line skirts and bustles were also used to make a design more sophisticated Men adopt business suits Levi Strauss introduces denim work pants



10 About the 1890s&Vionnet The 1890s was popular trends of the tulip bell skirt, snug and smooth over the hips and flared dramatically to a wide hem, was worn by women. 1890s fashion was simpler and more practical; women had more freedom in their clothing choices and sported reform clothing for outdoor activities. Corsets became less popular and instead a woman started wearing loose blouses and skirts with gathers of pleats down the front. Different variations of sleeves such as full, leg of mutton, bishop and tight sleeves (with a small puff) were trending during this time period. Frills and collars widen the shoulders while hems are padded and held out with layers of petticoats. A new style, Tailor-Made was born, suits that were often plain with jacket bodices for professional women handling business. In the late 1890s sleeves lost their fullness (birth of the “S” curve for a sleeve) and the skirt shape was changed to be closer to the hips yet flaring slightly at the knee. The Civil War, Industrial Revolution, Invention of the Cotton Gin and power loom impacted how people dressed especially women. They tended to wear more dark and serious colors, bright colors were uncommon. Tulip skirts, evening gowns with full/ leg of mutton sleeves, elaborate corsets, bustled back dresses were popular during the 1890s. Bonnets became smaller as the decade ended and women were wearing hats for the first time. Trim was largely concentrated on the bodice, contrasting fabric, lace, pleats, frills and fancy collars. Madeleine Vionnet created the Bias Cut and ultimately bias cut designs used worldwide present day.


12 Madeleine Vionnet Biography She came from a poor family and began working as a seamstress in the Ban Lieue of Paris at age eleven. At age 21, after her marriage at age 18, she worked for the more refined boutique in the Rue de La Paix. Here she was given a more elevated apprenticeship and moved to London after the death of her daughter and divorce from her husband. Greatly favored by pre-World War I actresses like Eve Lavalliere and Rejane, Vionnet was one of the most innovative designers of her day. At the end of the war, Vionnet introduced the bias cut, a technique for cutting cloth diagonal to the grain of the fabric enabling it to cling to the body while moving with the wearer. Her creations were often cut in one piece, without armholes, and draped so that often her clients required lessons in order to learn how to put them on. Vionnet's use of the bias cut to create a sleek, flattering, body-skimming look together with the lavish drapery of her designs; draping the fabric in folds and commissioning fabrics two yards wider than usual to accommodate her draping, revolutionized women’s clothing and carried her to the top of the fashion world. She was a trendsetter, and was widely imitated even in 1935 when she shifted to Romanticism, with taffeta ribbons. She stopped using the corset and used diagonal seaming to achieve her simple, fluid shapes. Many of Vionnet’s clothes looked shapeless until they were put on. Suits had bias-cut skirts, wrap- around coats were made with side fastenings and many garments fastened at the back or were pulled on over the head without a fastening of any kind. Bands of grosgrain often acted as lining and support for the insides of fine crepe dresses. Vionnet used striped fabrics but she was not a colorist. A smooth shape and fit were her main goal in achieving the ultimate in dress designs, a dress that fits sympathetically to the body. No other designer has equaled her enormous technical contribution to haute couture. Madeleine Vionnet retired in 1939 and closed her business in the same year at the outbreak of yet another war, World War II. She died thirty years’ later just months of turning one hundred years old


14 Modern Day Vionnet

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