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meaning "pore bearer" G ROUP 36: J ESSICA P ENNEY, T ONIKA L EVY, A ND K RISTEN Y OUNG.

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Presentation on theme: "meaning "pore bearer" G ROUP 36: J ESSICA P ENNEY, T ONIKA L EVY, A ND K RISTEN Y OUNG."— Presentation transcript:

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2 meaning "pore bearer" G ROUP 36: J ESSICA P ENNEY, T ONIKA L EVY, A ND K RISTEN Y OUNG

3 Evolutionary History Previously assigned to a separate subkingdom, Parazoa Closest single-celled relatives are thought to be choanoflagellates Does not form a monophyletic group Fossil records of sponges have been found from about 580 million years ago Archaeocyathids were a type of coralline sponge ~5000 known species; ~150 freshwater species

4 Basic Characteristics Cellular-level organization Body support (“skeleton”) provided by spicules Filter feeders through pores Either radially symmetrical or asymmetrical Spicules and potential biotoxin for defence Adults are sessile; larvae are motile Reproduction: Hermaphrodites Sexual ; Asexual

5 Structure Body is divided into three layers: The outermost layer comprised of pinacocytes The middle layer, mesohyl The innermost layer, choanocytes  Pinacocytes (Epidermal cells)  Choanocytes (Collar cells)  Mesohyl (Semi-fluid matrix)  Water flow A SCONOID S YNCONOID L EUCONOID

6 Classification Phylum Porifera Class Calcarea Class Demospongiae Class Hexactinellida

7 Class Calcarea About 400 described species in this group Exclusively marine; shallower, sheltered waters less than 1000m Tropical regions associated with the coral reefs Members of this group have large structural spicules Skeletons made of calcite Mainly dull, some colorful

8 Class Demospongiae Contain the largest number of species with 4750 species organized into 10 orders Marine environment; intertidal to the abyssal zone; some species inhabit freshwater Silicate spicules or spongin fibers or both within their soft tissues Brightly colored

9 Class Hexactinellida Glass sponges Depths between 200 and 1000m Abundant in the Antartic Upright stature Skeleton made entirely of silica

10 S OURCES


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