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Phylum Porifera: Sponges

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1 Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Chapter 6

2 Protostomes Deuterostomes Eumetazoa Metazoa Protozoa Monera (Bacteria)
Crustacea Arachnida Vertebrata Insecta Tunicata Chordata Arthropoda Hemi- chordata Mollusca Annelida Echinodermata Protostomes Deuterostomes Pseudocoelomates † Triploblasts * Diploblasts Coelomates Acoelomates Bilateria† Radiata* Cnidaria Ctenophora Eumetazoa Mesozoa Parazoa Metazoa Protozoa Monera (Bacteria)

3 The Sponges Phylum Porifera (Latin porous, “pore”; ferre : “to bear”).
About 5,500 living species most marine although there are about 200 freshwater species; 30 freshwater species in the US.

4 Characteristics of Sponges
Metazoa: without true tissue. Cellular grade of complexity (Parazoa). Adults asymmetrical or superficially radialy symmetrical. Unique flagellated cells the choanocytes that drive water through canals and chambers: the aquiferous system. Adults sessile suspension feeders; larval stages are motile. Reproduction sexual or asexual.


6 The Poriferan Bauplan Two unique organizational attributes:
The aquiferous system Highly totipotent nature of sponge cells

7 Overview of general structures
Sponges move water through their bodies using choanocytes All cells are loosely arranged into a gelatinous matrix, the mesohyle Water enters small holes called ostia Water exits large holes called oscula A skeleton helps maintain the structure of the sponge.

8 Body Structure and the Aquiferous System
The mesohyl includes a non cellular coloidal mesoglea in which are embedded collagen fibers, spicules and various cells. Most of these cells are able to change from one type to another as required. Water flows through the ostia all the chanels and eventually out through the osculum. Dermal pores or ostia 3)

9 Types of Canal Systems Most sponges can be separated based on their type of canal system. 1. Asconoid 2. Syconoid 3. Leuconoid

10 Asconoid sponges Found in radially symmetrical calcarous sponges: rarely exceed 10cm in height.

11 Asconoid sponges Simple organization
Water moves through the ostia into the spongocoel Choanoderm simple and continuous one cell thick.

12 Syconoid sponges Syconoid condition: simple folding of the pinacoderm and choanoderm. As complexity increases the mesohyl may thicken and appear to have two layers. Water is brought in through the incurrent canals and then to radial canals (lined with choanocytes).

13 Syconoid sponges

14 Leuconoid sponges Additional folding of the choanoder and further thickening of the mesohyl. Water is brought in through incurrent canals, and discharged through excurrent canals. Most common type.

15 Leuconoid sponges

16 The more complex a sponge condition the more particles it can filter from the water column.

17 Types of Cells Pinacocytes Porocytes Choanocytes
Archeocytes (Amoebocytes or Mesenchyme cells)

18 I. Pinacocytes Cells of the external epithelium Main functions:
Structure Contraction

19 II. Porocytes Cells which form pores Function: to allow water flow

20 III. Choanocytes Line the flagellated canals and chambers.
Main function: to create water flow.






26 Diameter of channels influences water flow velocity.
Particles that are captured are in the 2-5 µm range.

27 IV. Archaeocytes (Mesenchyme)
Amoeboid cells which can be non-sessile Found in cellular matrix Main function: Digestion Secrete structural components Spongin Spicules

28 Sponge feeding

29 Sclerocyte (Archiocyte) in the process of secreting a spicule

30 Keeping the mesohyle together
Spongin Spines (spicules) Siliceous Calcareous

31 Spongin Fibers of collagen

32 Spicules Spines, when placed together form a very rigid skeleton

33 Megascleres and Microscleres

34 Main Groups of Sponges P: Porifera C: Calcarea C: Hexactinellida
C: Demospongiae

35 Calcarea Calcareous sponges Spicules composed of calcium carbonate
Small < 10 cm tall

36 Calcareous sponges

37 Hexactinellida Glass sponges Some spicules fused to form skeleton
Spicules made of glass (Siliceous spicules) six rayed Deep water sponges

38 Siliceous spicules in Hexactinellida (Triaxon) six rayed spicules.



41 Demospongiae Common sponges Skeleton is variable Can be large Spicules
Spongin both Can be large

42 Siliceous Spiculse in Desmospongia
Never six-rayed Microscleres Megascleres

43 The Big Picture Sponges are metazoans, but don’t have true tissues
They are an ancient group (dead end) Three main groups (taxonomic), which fall into three main structural groups Four types of specialized cells *Choanocyte*

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