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Sponges Phylum Porifera.

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Presentation on theme: "Sponges Phylum Porifera."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sponges Phylum Porifera

2 Phylum Porifera – Pore Bearers
Water flow Osculum Choanocyte Central cavity Pores Spicule Pore cell Pore Epidermal cell Archaeocyte

3 Groups of specialized cells, do not form true tissues or organs
Sessile-attached to surface Pores allow water/plankton to circulate (suspension/filter-feeders) Asymmetry Choanocytes – collar cells that pump water in with flagella, create currents and trap food particles Osculum – large opening for water to exit Feeding, circulation, excretion, respiration Simple skeleton Spicules – transparent support structures made of calcium carbonate/silica Spongin - protein Amebocytes – mobile cells to secrete spicules and spongin

4 Feeding Suspension/Filter feeders-actively filtering food particles
Intracellular digestion Choanocytes trap food/pass it on Amebocytes – complete digestion by transporting and storing food particles

5 Respiration, Feeding, Excretion
Water circulation diffusion Response Lacks nervous system Produce toxins

6 Sexual Reproduction and Life Cycle
MEIOSIS Haploid (N) Diploid (2N) Sperm from a sponge are released into the surrounding water-Spawning. Water currents carry the sperm to other sponges. New sponge Sperm (N) Mature sponge Metamorphosis (2N) Egg (N) Swimming larva Larva (2N) The zygote develops into a free-swimming larva. Water currents carry the larva until it attaches to a surface and grows into a new sponge. Sperm enter another sponge through pores. The sperm are carried to eggs inside the body wall. Sperm fertilize eggs. FERTILIZATION

7 Reproduction – Cont. Sexual Reproduction
Gametes-sex cells developed from certain amebocytes (most sponges can produce both) Asexual Reproduction Budding-branches or buds break off and grow into separate sponges identical to parent

8 Types of Sponges Encrusting-form thin growths on rocks/dead coral (sometimes bright colors)

9 Red bearded sponge

10 Glass-anchored in deep-water sediments, lace-like skeleton of fused spicules (ex. Venus Flower Basket)

11 Boring-bore thin channels through calcium carbonate shells such as oysters and coral

12 Coralline/Sclero-calcium carbonate skeleton with spicules and spongin form under its body (first known as fossils)

13 Ecology Symbiotic relationships with bacteria, algae, protists

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