Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I 1914 - 1918 “The world must be made safe for democracy.""— Presentation transcript:
WORLD WAR I 1914 - 1918 “The world must be made safe for democracy."
Poll With which of the following do you most agree: A. War should be avoided at all costs. B. War should only be fought to save innocent lives. C. War is a noble pursuit. D. War should be used
Key Question What caused the United States to enter the Great War, and what impact did the war have on the United States as a result of their involvement?
The Underlying Causes of the Great War (M.A.I.N) Militarism Glorification of armed strength; the tendency to see military might as the best tool for the expansion of a nation’s power & prestige. Why did militarism make it more difficult to avoid the outbreak of war? Made it more tempting to resort to violence & to use weapons developed as the result of industrialization.
The Underlying Causes of the Great War (M.A.I.N) What predictors of war were in place before fighting began? European countries increased the size of their armies, navies, & weaponry. They also made alliances for mutual protection. Ally Person, nation, or group joined with another for a common purpose. Why did European countries form alliances? To protect themselves Strengthen their defense Deter other countries from attacking them
The Underlying Causes of the Great War (M.A.I.N) Early European Alliances Triple Alliance – mutual defense agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy (1882) Triple Entente – mutual defense agreement between France, Russia, & Great Britain (1907)
The Underlying Causes of the Great War (M.A.I.N) Imperialism The policy & practice of exploiting nations & peoples for the benefit of an imperial power either directly through military occupation & colonial rule or indirectly through economic domination of resources & markets. Nationalism spirit or aspirations common to the whole of a nation. devotion and loyalty to one's own country; patriotism. excessive patriotism; chauvinism. the desire for national advancement or political independence. the policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of one's own nation viewed as separate from the interests of other nations or the common interests of all nations.
The Underlying Causes of the Great War (M.A.I.N) How did many Europeans’ idea of nationalism change in the late 1800s? The began to reject the idea of a nation with different ethnic groups & turn toward the idea of a nation representing a single ethnic group. How did nationalism & militarism both work to push Europe toward war? Nationalism heightened tensions among ethnic groups, exacerbated territorial disputes, & increased economic competition. Militarism led to new weapons technology & created an arms race. These two factors increased rivalries among nations & aggravated tensions that already existed.
The Underlying Causes of the Great War (M.A.I.N) MilitarismAlliances Imperialism Nationalism
The Outbreak of War Assassination at Sarajevo – Gavrilo Princip of the Black Hand assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his wife on June 28, 1914
The Outbreak of War Alliances Mobilize Austria declares war on Serbia with German support. Russia came to the aid of Serbia by declaring war on Austria- Hungary, while Germany declared war on Russia & France. Germany’s refusal to recognize Belgium’s neutrality resulted in a declaration of war against them by Great Britain. A chain reaction draws all European powers into the war.
The Outbreak of War Italy Changes Sides Italy refused to support the Austro-Hungarians & Germans because they had acted as aggressors by marching through neutral Belgium. Allied PowersCentral Powers France Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Russia Ottoman Empire Italy Bulgaria
Early Events & Battles Battle of the Marne Germany’s march through Belgium almost succeeded, but the French were able to halt their offensive before reaching Paris. Naval Warfare Great Britian blockaded the North Sea to cut off German shipping. Germany used unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic to stop food & munitions from reaching Britain
A New Kind of War Industrialization led to new weaponry that had a profound effect on the war: Mass production produced machine guns & artillery field guns, which led to trench warfare & a stalemate on the Western Front Why did both sides embrace trench warfare as a strategy to win the war? It was a response to the change in military protection. The trenches offered protective defenses. What does an army sacrifice when it commits to trench warfare? Mobility What is a stalemate? A situation in which neither side can make any further worthwhile action; a tie; a defensive struggle.
A New Kind of War Other technology introduced during the Great War: Poison Gas Submarines Tanks & armored cars Airplanes
Wilson’s Neutrality Why did some Americans not want to enter the war in Europe? They believed in isolationism. Their interests were not directly threatened. Believed a war would be too costly. Why did President Wilson fear that the war would pit Americans against each other? With entry into the war, Wilson feared Americans of different ethnic/national backgrounds would take sides & turn their anger towards each other.
Wilson’s Neutrality In 1914 Wilson urged neutrality but many Americans sympathized w/ certain nations (German & Irish immigrants, but most allied with Great Britain) Strong US-British economic ties & a blockade of Central Powers led the US to continue trade w/ Britain & shun trade w/ Central nations- “arsenal of Allies” Germany began using submarine warfare in 1915 to combat British naval domination
Preparedness vs. Pacifism Wilson did not intervene for either side because of concern for his re-election chances & domestic division that existed. Economic & militarily preparations were debated by pacifists and interventionists. However, by 1916 military armament was largely under way. Wilson won an extremely close 1916 election on the slogan “He kept us out of war” & his ability to keep the US independent, although Democrats barely held on to Congressional majorities.
American Enters the Great War Sinking of the Lusitania & Sussex In May 1915 a German U-boat sunk the British passenger liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland killing 1200 including 128 Americans. In 1916 the French passenger ship the Sussex was sunk by Germany. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson warned that unrestricted submarine warfare would bring the U.S. into the war & the Germans agreed to stop this policy (Sussex Pledge).
United States enters the Great War Zimmerman Telegram: In 1917 German foreign minister Alfred Zimmerman sent a secret telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico that instructed him to draw Mexico into the war on Germany’s side with the promise to return parts of the Southwestern U.S. that they had lost in the 1800s. The telegram was intercepted by the British & passed to the United States
War Plans Change After the election, Wilson wanted the country unified and justified it by entering the war. Felt the US should fight to create a new progressive world order, but not for material gains. In January 1917 Germany began an offensive & resumed unrestricted submarine warfare to defeat Allies before US entrance.
Russian Revolution Discontent of the Russian people forced Czar Nicholas II to abdicate his throne on March 15, 1917 ending the Romanov Dynasty A provisional government under Alexander Kerensky was established but his control was short-lived
Russian Revolution V.I. Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks or radical socialists, overthrew the provisional government on November 7, 1917 The Bolshevik Revolution under Lenin established an adaptation of Marxism, which we know as Russian communism
Russian Revolution & World War I The communists signed peace treaties with the Central Powers ending their involvement in World War I. A Russian Civil War between the Reds (communists) & the Whites (communist opposition) lasted for three years. In 1921, despite Allied support of the Whites, the Communists defeated the Whites & established complete control in Russia.
America Enters the Great War What German actions led the United States to enter the Great War? Germany on two occasions violated its promise to not sink unarmed passenger ships. Germany sent the Zimmerman note to Mexico proposing a German-Mexican alliance against the United States. The Russian Revolution
America Enters the Great War War is declared – April 6, 1917 – In a war message to Congress, President Woodrow Wilson calls for the U.S. to enter World War I on the side of the allies in order to “... protect the open seas and make the world safe for democracy.”
Pair & Share Connection Questions (1) Is it right for America to intervene in foreign conflicts? (2) When American lives are threatened, how should the government respond? (3) Should America go to war to make the world “safe for democracy”?
Impact of U.S. Entry Immediately w/ US entrance the Allied navy was able to dramatically reduce sinking’s in troop + supply convoys. In 1917, the withdrawal of Russian forces after Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) led Germans to put resources on Western Front, Allies needed US ground troops. The American Expeditionary Force The US army was too small to supply needed troops. In April 1917, Wilson urged the passage of Selective Service Act to draft soldiers. The AEF was diverse-- women served as auxiliaries in non- combat roles; African-American soldiers served in segregated units or had menial roles
Military Struggle The US ground forces were insignificant until the spring 1918; the AEF under Gen John Pershing maintained a command structure independent from other Allies. The US force tipped the stalemate & balance of power to the Allies. Beginning in September, the US forced fighting in Argonne Forest ; pushed Germans back & cut off supply routes At the 11 th Hour of the 11 th Day of the 11 th Monthe (11/11/1918) the Great War ended w/ Allies on the German border.
Organizing the American Economy The US appropriated $32 billion for the war- to raise money the US government sold “Liberty Bonds” to the public & put new graduated taxes on income & inheritance. To organize the economy Wilson created Council of National Defense; but emphasis was placed on the Civilian Advisory Commission tasked w/ mobilizing at local level. CND members urged “scientific management” & centralization; they proposed dividing the economy based on function and not geography w/ “war boards” coordinating efforts in each sector. The War Industries Board oversaw the purchase of military supplies, under Bernard Baruch. It organized factories, set prices, and distributed needed materials. Instead of restricting profits, the US government entered an alliance w/ the private sector.
Labor & the War National War Labor Board pressured industry for concessions to workers (8-hour day, living standards, collective bargaining), but workers were forced to forgo strikes. Right before war the Ludlow Massacre occurred when striking miners were killed.
Social Impact of the War The economic boom created by the war resulted in industrial production expanding that created opportunities for female & minorities because of men at war. The war years saw a “Great Migration” of hundreds of thousands of African- Americans from the rural South to northern industrial cities. Southern poverty & racism led to an appeal of Northern factory jobs. Growing black communities near white neighborhoods sometimes resulted in race riots. Women took higher-paying industrial jobs that were unavailable in peace time.
Pair & Share Worked in jobs that had been traditionally held by men; joined the Navy; served as Army Nurses Moved to Northern cities for more opportunities; served in the military Migrated to industrial cities for work opportunities
The Search for Social Unity Public sentiment was divided over US involvement in war—the peace movement was supported by German Americans, Irish who opposed Great Britain, as well as religious pacifists, intellectuals and leftist groups. Peaces support also came from women’s movement- maternal pacifism.
Selling the War Once America intervened most of country became patriotic and supportive of troops. The Government was concerned about the minority in opposition to the war. They believed victory was possible only through united public opinion. The Committee on Public Information under George Creel distributed pro-war propaganda—portrayals of savage Germans
Contributions on the Homefront Activity Follow this link to complete the activity: http://docsteach.org/activities/4941 http://docsteach.org/activities/4941
Preventing Dissent The Espionage Act of 1917 gave government the power to punish spies and obstructers of the war effort & respond to reports of disloyalty. The Sabotage Act and Sedition Act of 1918 made any public expression of opposition illegal specifically targeted socialist groups. Local governments and private citizen groups worked to repress opposition through “vigilante mob” discipline. Also the American Protective League had thousands of members who spied on neighbors to ensure unity of opinion in communities. Repressive efforts targeted socialists and labor leaders, but also largely immigrants (Germans, Irish, Jews). “Loyalist” Americans called for “100 Percent Americanism”. German Americans faced fierce discrimination.
Fourteen Points of Peace U.S President Woodrow Wilson introduced his 14 points in a speech to Congress in January of 1918 to “... End the causes of modern war” Wilson’s Fourteen Points addressed three areas: self-determination and new boundaries; new international governance laws including freedom of the seas, end to secret treaties, free trade, determination of colonial claims; league of nations to implement points and resolve future disagreements The Fourteen Points also was an effort to combat Bolshevik (Lenin) aspiration to lead new postwar world order. The US established itself through the points. The peace plan presented by Wilson raised morale of the Allied troops as they entered the final stage of the Great War
League of Nations 14 th & most important point President Wilson’s fourteen points were considered by the victorious Allies, but were by no means adopted & put into practice Wilson realized that separate treaties made with each Central power had not established a “peace of justice”, but he hoped the creation of a League of Nations would be able to remedy problems created by these treaties
League of Nations The League of Nations had two main goals: To promote international cooperation To maintain peace by settling disputes peacefully & by reducing armaments The United States never became a member of the League of Nations, which many believe was the reason for its eventual downfall
Obstacles to Wilson’s Peace Wilson hoped popular support would help garner Allied support for Points, However, most Allies were so decimated by the war and so bitter against Germany that they focused only on punishing the defeated Central Powers. British Prime Minister David Lloyd George and French Premier Georges Clemenceau were determined to gain reparations. At home Wilson & the Democrats lost control of Congress to Republican majorities in the 1918 election. Domestic economic issues & Republican opposition weakened his position.
Paris Peace Conference The Big Four nations to negotiate a peace treaty were GB, France, Italy, & the US. Wilson’s idealism was met by an effort by other nations to improve their own lot. Concerns existed about eastern Europe and communism (US did not recognize Bolshevik govt until 1933). His economic & strategic demands suffered from conflict w/ cultural nationalism. Wilson initially rejected reparations demands from the Central Powers, but the Allies forced him to accept the idea in order to keep Germany weak & unable to threaten Europe. Wilson was successful in placing some colonies under a League of Nations “mandate” system, that created Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia The Allies accepted “covenant” of League of Nations-- to meet to resolve disputes & protect peace, Wilson believed problems w/ treaty could be fixed by the League.
Treaty of Versailles Separate treaties were made with the five Central Power nations. The Versailles Treaty was made with Germany – terms: Germany agreed to pay heavy reparations Germany agreed to not fortify the Rhineland & the restored nation of Poland received a large area of German land Germany had to abolish conscription & could not maintain a reserve army or manufacture war materials
Compare & Contrast In pairs read, annotate, & identify arguments for & against the League of Nations.
The Ratification Battle Americans used to isolation questioned the international commitment they League of Nations required. Wilson refused to compromise or modify the League. Opposition was lead by Republican “irreconcilables” who wanted isolation, but also by personal hatred of Wilson by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. He wanted to delay so public approval would subside & make the treaty an issue in the 1920 election.
Wilson’s Ordeal Wilson began traveling the country to gain public support for the treaty. The traveling and speaking tour exacerbated his already bad health and he suffered a stroke that rendered him incapable for weeks. His condition made his views of world in moral terms and loathing for compromise stronger. When the treaty was sent to the Senate for approval w/ “reservations” (amendments) attached, Wilson urged Dems to vote against it. Both the amended treaty and the original failed to reach 2/3 majority to be ratified.
Other Results of World War I Austria is recognized as an independent Republic Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia are created Ottoman Empire becomes Turkey Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Syria, & Iraq were created