Presentation on theme: "Identification of the variety of materials that can be found in our cemeteries."— Presentation transcript:
Identification of the variety of materials that can be found in our cemeteries
Identification of the type of rock that can be found in our cemeteries
Identification of Rocks used for Memorial Headstones Rock fizzes with acid Rock does not fizz with acid Limestone Grains are crystals. Tightly held together Rounded Grains Rock is made of small gritty, grains like sand. Commonly covered in moss. Used in early days for headstones Sandstone Rock embedded with larger rounded pebbles. Brittle. Often used for fence posts and plinths for headstones Conglomerate Grains not arranged in layers Grains arranged in layers Large crystals of pale colour. Comes in a variety of mottled colours and is highly polished in headstones. Granite Marble Slate Hard white rock with some veining. Widely used stone in cemeteries due to colour. Hard dark grey rock brittle – splits into thin sheets. Most uncommon For extra activities on rock identification see http://www.kidsgeo.com/g eology-games/rocks- game.php
Sedimentary rock. Soft and crumbly. Made of large grains.
Sedimentary rock Made from sea shells. Can contain fossils.
This limestone sarcophagus pictured above is dated to 5 th century, AD. Serjilla, is located on the limestone massif in Northern Syria. The sarcophagus is made of local materials. The beautifully decorated limestone headstone on the left was found in the Roman city of Apamea in Northern Syria. Greco – Roman Period between 330 BC and 330AD Limestone has been used for the creation of memorials to the dead for many thousands of years as these two examples show.
Rock soft and crumbly Conglomerate is frequently used in the cemetery usually for corner posts and plinths. Rock embedded with small pebbles.
Metamorphic rock Made from heated and compressed limestone.
Igneous rock Hard Strong. Interlocking crystals of Quartz, Mica and Feldspar.
Granite comes in several different colours. – Grey, pink, red and black.
Metamorphic rock Very hard and brittle. Splits into thin sheets.
Wood Slate Limestone/ Sandstone Concrete with marble or granite plaques Marble Granite Metal
Battleship curves are a great way to graph changing popularity of stone types over time. Records from Allanton Cemetery Dunedin. 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 Sandstone or Limestone Concrete with Marble cartouche Natural stone with bronze plaque Concrete with Granite cartouche GraniteMarble
Decide on which of the rocks you think looks nice and say why you would like to make a monument out of your choice.
What equipment will you need? Samples of different kinds of rocks (labeled). A sample of wood can also be included 10c coin (copper) Steel knife Your own fingernails Softer rocks are easier to carve and shape but are prone to weathering. In this experiment you will be testing a variety of rocks for their hardness. How will you compare the rock samples. How will you make it a fair and accurate test? How will you record your results ? ( Some recording ideas are shown below) Pairs of rocks compared Which rock scratched or left marks on the other Name of rock Can be scratched by a fingernail Can be scratched by a copper coin Can be scratched by a steel knife blade Can you find an order of hardness for the samples?
If you have only one or two rock samples you can find their hardness using Mohs’ Scale of Hardness. 1 on the scale is the softest stone and 10 on the scale is the hardest. LevelQuick TestExample 1Scratched by a fingernail talc 2gypsum 3Scratched by a copper coin calcite 4flourite 5Scratched by a steel knife blade apatite 6feldspar 7 Will scratch glass quartz 8topaz 9corundu m 10diamond Use the chart to help you decide on the hardness of your rock samples. Marble can be scratched with a knife blade and a coin but not by a fingernail. Which is the harder of these two stones? LimestoneGranite For more information see on Mohs Scale see http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/387714/Mohs-hardness
What equipment will you need? Samples of different kinds of rocks (labeled). Metal file Newsprint Accurate balance Eye protection Timer Softer rocks are easier to carve and shape but are prone to weathering. In this experiment you will be testing a variety of rocks for erosion? How will you judge how much rock you have worn away? How will you make it a fair and accurate test? How will you record your results? (A way of recording your data is shown below) Name of rockMass of rock worn away in 5 minutes
What equipment will you need? Samples of different kinds of rocks (labeled). Dilute sulphuric acid Bowl for used rock samples Beakers Eye protection Which rocks are safest from chemical attack? How will you compare the affect of acid on the rock samples. How will you make it a fair and accurate test? How will you make sure your tests are safely carried out? How will you record your results ? (A way of recording your data is shown below) Name of rockReaction with dilute acid
What equipment will you need? Samples of different kinds of rocks (labeled). Plastic Beakers Paper towels Balance to measure mass Which rocks absorb water and which are less porous? Name of rockMass before immersion Mass after immersion for 10 minutes Mass after immersion for 30 minutes How will you judge how much water the rock samples have absorbed? How will you make it a fair and accurate test? What are the limitations of your test How will you record your results ? (A way of recording your data is shown below)
Experiment 6 Continued on next slide What equipment will you need? Samples of different kinds of rocks (labeled). Plastic beaker and trough Water Measuring cylinder Accurate balance to measure mass Calculator Will those rocks which are more densely constructed last longer? You can calculate the density of materials by dividing its mass by its volume. mass (g) ÷ volume cm 3 = density (g/cm 3 ) How will you measure the mass of the rock samples? How will you measure the volume of the rock samples? How will you make it a fair and accurate test? What are the limitations of your test?
Generally those rocks which are more densely constructed will last longer? You can calculate the density of materials by dividing its mass by its volume. mass (g) ÷ volume cm 3 = density (g/cm 3 ) Name of rockRecorded MassRecorded VolumeCalculated Density How will you record your results ? (One way of recording your data is shown below) Overflow water Measuring Cylinder Water Displacement trough Tip overflow water from beaker into measuring cylinder
Record the details of the purpose your monument and draw up your design. Combine your experimental results into one chart for example… Provide your reasons for the choice of building material for the monument you have in mind. There may be lots of thins you need to consider. Name of rocks AppearanceHardnessErosionReaction with acid PorosityDensity
Books: Hook, G. (1999). New Zealand Pathfinder Series – self study guides. Science Year 11 – School Certificate, New House Publishers Ltd. Auckland. Mytum, H. (2000). Recording and Analysing Graveyards: Practical Handbook in Archaeology 15. Council for British Archaeology in Association with English Heritage. Stannard, P., Williamson, K. and Hook, P. (1999). Science World 10 for the New Zealand Curriculum. MacMillan. Auckland. Websites: Geology Games For Kids, Games About Our Earth http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-games/rocks-game.php Rocks for kids.com URL: http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/identification.html#Hardness