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The Rock Cycle. For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded-- broken down and worn away by wind and water. These.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rock Cycle. For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded-- broken down and worn away by wind and water. These."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rock Cycle

2 For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded-- broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock. Sedimentary Rock

3 Sandstone rocks are sedimentary rocks made from small grains of the minerals quartz and feldspar. They often form in layers as seen in this picture. They are often used as building stones. Sedimentary Rock - Sandstone

4 Limestone rocks are sedimentary rocks that are made from the mineral calcite which came from the beds of evaporated seas and lakes and from sea animal shells. This rock is used in concrete and is an excellent building stone for humid regions. Sedimentary Rock - Limestone

5 Shale rock is a type of sedimentary rock formed from clay that is compacted together by pressure. They are used to make bricks and other material that is fired in a kiln. Sedimentary Rock - Shale

6 Conglomerate rocks are sedimentary rocks. They are made up of large sediments like sand and pebbles. The sediment is so large that pressure alone cannot hold the rock together; it is also cemented together with dissolved minerals. Sedimentary Rock - Conglomerate

7 Gypsum rocks are sedimentary rocks made up of sulfate mineral and formed as the result of evaporating sea water in massive prehistoric basins. It is very soft and is used to make Plaster of Paris, casts, molds, and wallboards. Sedimentary Rock - Gypsum

8 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground. Underground, they are formed when the melted rock, called magma, deep within the earth becomes trapped in small pockets. As these pockets of magma cool slowly underground, the magma becomes igneous rocks.

9 Igneous rocks are also formed when volcanoes erupt, causing the magma to rise above the earth's surface. When magma appears above the earth, it is called lava. Igneous rocks are formed as the lava cools above ground.

10 Granite rocks are igneous rocks which were formed by slowly cooling pockets of magma that were trapped beneath the earth's surface. Granite is used for long lasting monuments and for trim and decoration on buildings. Igneous Rock - Granite

11 Scoria rocks are igneous rocks which were formed when lava cooled quickly above ground. You can see where little pockets of air had been. Scoria is actually a kind of glass and not a mixture of minerals. Igneous Rock - Scoria

12 Pumice rocks are igneous rocks which were formed when lava cooled quickly above ground. You can see where little pockets of air had been. This rock is so light, that many pumice rocks will actually float in water. Pumice is actually a kind of glass and not a mixture of minerals. Because this rock is so light, it is used quite often as a decorative landscape stone. Ground to a powder, it is used as an abrasive in polish compounds and in Lava© soap. Igneous Rock - Pumice

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14 Obsidian rocks are igneous rocks that form when lava cools quickly above ground. Obsidian is actually glass and not a mixture of minerals. The edges of this rock are very sharp. Igneous Rock - Obsidian

15 Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change? The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which fosters heat build up, and this causes them to change. If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you'll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are. Metamorphic Rock

16 Schist rocks are metamorphic. These rocks can be formed from basalt, an igneous rock; shale, a sedimentary rock; or slate, a metamorphic rock. Through tremendous heat and pressure, these rocks were transformed into this new kind of rock. Metamorphic Rock - Schist

17 Gneiss rocks are metamorphic. These rocks may have been granite, which is an igneous rock, but heat and pressure changed it. You can see how the mineral grains in the rock were flattened through tremendous heat and pressure and are arranged in alternating patterns. Metamorphic Rock - Gneiss

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20 Igneous rock is broken down into sediment by weathering and erosion. This sediment is washed into rivers by rain and it settles at the bottom of the rivers. Over time, more layers of sediment are added. The weight of all the layers presses them together and they eventually harden forming sedimentary rock. 1

21 The sedimentary rock is pushed deeper into the earth. This adds to the pressure from the weight from above. It also moves closer to the heat of the magma stored in the deeper layers of the earth. This pressure and heat combined forces the sedimentary rock to completely change and it becomes metamorphic rock. 2

22 3 If the metamorphic rock reaches the hotter magma, it will completely melt and become part of the magma. The magma travels along underground pathways which will eventually find its way out to the surface through volcanoes. When the magma hits the surface, it becomes lava and begins to cool. The cooled lava forms what is known as igneous rock.

23 The cycle starts all over again.

24 Let’s see what you remember.

25 I am made up of bits and pieces of many different types of rocks. I started forming in the bottom of a river, but I was eventually pushed underground where I hardened into rock. I contain fossils, which gives people a peek at what life was like millions of years ago. A sedimentary rock B igneous rock C metamorphic rock

26 A sedimentary rock

27 I was formed from hardened sediment that had been pushed down deep into the earth. Pressure and heat have caused a complete change to create me. A sedimentary rock B igneous rock C metamorphic rock

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29 I started off as liquid magma formed from melted metamorphic rock. I reached the surface of the earth through a volcano where I cooled and hardened. A sedimentary rock B igneous rock C metamorphic rock

30 B igneous rock

31 This is an example of A sedimentary rock B igneous rock C metamorphic rock

32 A sedimentary rock

33 Turn and talk to a neighbor about how you can tell this is a sedimentary rock. You have one minute.

34 Did your conversation contain: layers noticed different materials

35 What type of rock is pumice? A sedimentary rock B igneous rock C metamorphic rock

36 B igneous rock

37 Which word means hot liquid rock deep in the earth? A lava B metamorphic rock C magma

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39 Why are rocks important to us? Turn and talk to your neighbor about your ideas. You have one minute.

40 Did your conversation include: constructing buildings constructing roads building dams landscaping


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