Presentation on theme: "By: Mika I. Gilchrist “The Rock Cycle”. A mineral is a naturally occurring, nonliving solid that has a specific chemical makeup and a crystalline,"— Presentation transcript:
By: Mika I. Gilchrist “The Rock Cycle”
A mineral is a naturally occurring, nonliving solid that has a specific chemical makeup and a crystalline, or repeating, structure.
Quartz Diamond Salt
Streak – is the color of the powder left behind when you rub a mineral against a rough white tile, or a streak plate. Luster - the way a mineral’s surface reflects the light. Hardness – is a mineral’s ability to resist being scratched. Some minerals, such as quartz, are found in a variety of colors.
Smoky quartz Amethyst quartz Rose quartz Clear quartz
Streak Color for a Few Common Minerals Black - Graphite Black - Pyrite Black - Magnetite Black - Chalcopyrite Gray - Galena Limonite - Yellow-brown Hematite - Red-brown
Steel nails: Hardness of 5.5 Copper penny: Hardness 3 Glass: Hardness of 6
Calcite: produces a double image. Fluorite: glows or fluoresces under certain kinds of light. Magnetite: attracts materials containing iron.
Rock A rock is a natural solid made of one or more minerals.
How Igneous Rock Is Formed Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground. Underground, they are formed when the melted rock, called magma, deep within the earth becomes trapped in small pockets. As these pockets of magma cool slowly underground, the magma becomes igneous rocks. Igneous rocks are also formed when volcanoes erupt, causing the magma to rise above the earth's surface. When magma appears above the earth, it is called lava. Igneous rocks are formed as the lava cools above ground.
Granite rocks are igneous rocks which were formed by slowly cooling pockets of magma that were trapped beneath the earth's surface. Granite is used for long lasting monuments and for trim and decoration on buildings. Scoria rocks are igneous rocks which were formed when lava cooled quickly above ground. You can see where little pockets of air had been. Scoria is actually a kind of glass and not a mixture of minerals. Obsidian rocks are igneous rocks that form when lava cools quickly above ground. Obsidian is actually glass and not a mixture of minerals. The edges of this rock are very sharp.
How Sedimentary Rock Is Formed For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock.
Sandstone rocks are sedimentary rocks made from small grains of the minerals quartz and feldspar. They often form in layers as seen in this picture. They are often used as building stones. Limestone rocks are sedimentary rocks that are made from the mineral calcite which came from the beds of evaporated seas and lakes and from sea animal shells. This rock is used in concrete and is an excellent building stone for humid regions.
How Metamorphic Rock Is Formed Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change? The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which fosters heat build up, and this causes them to change. If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you'll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are.
Schist rocks are metamorphic. These rocks can be formed from basalt, an igneous rock; shale, a sedimentary rock; or slate, a metamorphic rock. Through tremendous heat and pressure, these rocks were transformed into this new kind of rock. Gneiss rocks are metamorphic. These rocks may have been granite, which is an igneous rock, but heat and pressure changed it. You can see how the mineral grains in the rock were flattened through tremendous heat and pressure and are arranged in alternating patterns.
Rocks such as sandstone, limestone, granite, and marble are used to build buildings and monuments. Thousands of years ago, people used rock s called flint to make many hand tools. Even today, rocks are used to make tools of many kinds – from sandpaper and surgical instruments.
Weathering – the process of wearing away rocks by natural processes. Erosion – the process of wearing away and removing sediment by wind, water, or ice.
The Rock Cycle Just as you recycle aluminum cans and waste paper, Earth recycles rocks through the rock cycle. Igneous Rock Granite, an igneous rock, can be changed into sandstone, a sedimentary rock, through weathering and erosion. Heat and pressure can change granite into metamorphic rock. With enough heat, granite can melt and harden into new igneous rock. Sedimentary Rock Heat and pressure can change sandstone, a sedimentary rock, into geniss, a metamorphic rock. If sandstone is melted, it hardens into an igneous rock when it cools. If sandstone is weathered and eroded, it can form a new sedimentary rock. Metamorphic Rock Geniss (NYS), a metamorphic rock, can be weathered, eroded, deposited, and cemented into a sedimentary rock. If a metamorphic rock is melted and then hardens again, it will become an igneous rock. With heat and pressure, a metamorphic rock can become a new metamorphic rock. Science Up Close
The Rock Cycle: The rock cycle is the continuous process in which one type of rock changes into another type..