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Paul Knight Nancy Lindahl September 24, 2010 1 WELCOME!

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2 Paul Knight Nancy Lindahl September 24, 2010 1 WELCOME!

3 Paul Knight Principal-Lakeside Academy 3 rd year and at Valley Center School for 25 years PBLS Specialist: Specialty Schools School Psychologist Croyden Ave School for 5 years Ph.D. Applied Behavior Analysis

4 Nancy Lindahl Positive Behavior Support Coach-KRESA 20 years as a middle school Special Ed Teacher MI & NY 10 years as founder and Behavior Specialist of Kalamazoo Advantage Academy

5 The Instructional Center, working in collaboration with local districts, state agencies, universities and other intermediate school districts, is involved in all aspects of curriculum and instruction, focused on assisting local districts and school buildings in improving and enhancing student achievement.


7  Breaks  Lunch  Computer  Bathrooms  Misc.

8  Review Questionnaire  Why (Rationale and background) 7

9  Group Activity: Case Study  The Science of Behavior  Functional Behavior Assessment  Completing your own Assessment  Functional Analysis—The Rest of the Story  F-BSP Teaming  Packets of resources 8

10 Please write a paragraph introducing us to a student whose behavior is problematic. This should be a student you know well enough to describe behavioral issues. Do not use the student’s real name in your description. Share problems within group and then class. 9

11 10 Introduce you to and practice a process to increase your likelihood of developing interventions that will change behavior in the desired direction.  Precision in Language/Communication  Organize the Process  Increase Confidence  Organize Your Analysis/Thinking

12 Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems 11

13 1.Common purpose & approach to discipline 2.Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation 12 School-wide Systems

14 Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems 13

15  Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged  Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged  Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction  Active supervision  Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors  Frequent precorrections for chronic errors  Effective academic instruction & curriculum 14 Classroom Setting Systems

16 Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems 15

17  Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged  Active supervision by all staff  Scan, move, interact  Precorrections & reminders  Positive reinforcement 16 Nonclassroom Setting Systems

18 Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems 17

19  Behavioral competence at school & district levels  Function-based behavior support planning  Team- & data-based decision making  Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes  Targeted social skills & self-management instruction  Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations 18 Individual Student Systems

20  Create systems-based preventive continuum of behavior support  Focus on adult behavior  Establish behavioral competence  Utilize data based decisions  Give priority to academic success  Invest in evidence-based practices  Teach & acknowledge behavioral expectations  Work from a person-centered, function-based approach  Arrange to work smarter 19

21 1. Get into groups of 5. Assign a number to each person in your group, 1-5. 2. Find the blue page titled: “Technical Adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist.” Read it. 3. Answer the question on the next slide corresponding to your number. 4. Report to your group on your information. 5. Report to whole group and compare responses. 20

22 1. What is functional behavior assessment? 2. What are the sources of data used in an FBA? 3. Is it a research based practice? 4. What is the potential success rate of interventions not using an FBA? 5. Why is a functional analysis less practical or not useful? 21

23  Behavior – what someone does (an observable and measurable action)  Behavioral Function – As key aspects of the environment change so does behavior.  Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) - A systematic team process for determining the environmental variables that impact the behavior.  Functional Behavior Analysis – A scientific process for determining the environmental variables that impact behavior (ABC’s, setting events, etc.) 22

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25 24 In a function based approach effective solutions to problem behavior focus on environmental events that trigger and maintain behavior.  Rarely can problem behaviors be impacted by focusing on within-person pathologies.  This can be a dramatic shift in thinking for many school personnel.  Change the environment rather than fixing the person.

26 25 At the foundation of FBA are three major tenets about behavior  Human behavior is predictable  Human behavior is changeable  Human behavior is functional

27 26 Human behavior is functional  The purpose is to obtain something or  The purpose is to avoid or escape something  People behave the way they do for a reason – behavior serves a purpose  Students use effective strategies more often than ineffective strategies

28 27 Human behavior is functional  Students sometimes learn that problem behavior is more efficient for obtaining what they want  Students sometimes learn that problem behavior is more effective for obtaining what they want  Students use effective/efficient strategies more often than ineffective or inefficient strategies

29 28 Human behavior is predictable  Environmental conditions can  Set up  Set off  Behavior is a function of the environment (and does not occur in a vacuum)  Or, maintain student behavior

30 29 Human behavior is changeable  Design of effective environmental routines  These routines focus on changing the conditions that set up, set off or maintain problematic behavior  FBA switches the focus from “treatment of within-child pathology” to  These routines make the problem behavior irrelevant, inefficient, or ineffective``

31  Problem behaviors are irrelevant when Child doesn’t need to escape anymore Child has access to positive events more commonly  Problem behaviors are inefficient when Alternative behavior is available Alternative behavior is taught  Problem behaviors are ineffective when Problem behavior NO LONGER works- it does not get the child what they want to obtain or what they want to avoid. 30

32 “ Doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.” 31 Albert Einstein

33  Are not born with “bad behaviors”  Do not learn when presented contingent aversive consequences …….. Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function 32

34 I know that you believe that you understood what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant. Robert McCloskey, State Department spokesman (attributed )Robert McCloskey Precision in Communication 33

35 Interventions in schools should focus on changing behaviors, not treating diagnostic labels, categories, or conditions. 34

36  Although people usually view others in terms of personality traits, this model looks at behaviors. See whether you can differentiate between the types of descriptions in the following paragraph.  It may be helpful to use the following: Behavior = what person does Trait = what person is 35

37  First work individually and then compare your answers with your tablemates  Complete the Observable vs. Unobservable worksheet 36

38 37 When doing an FBA, using precise language is necessary to complete the assessment, and it helps later in intervention planning.  The words we use to describe human actions (action verbs, topography)  The sequence in which we describe things (patterns of actions, what occurs 1 st, 2 nd, etc.)  The numbers we use to describe behavior (frequency, duration, latency, time-of-day)  Precise problem statements include info about the core “W’s”: What, Where, Who, and When

39 Rewrite/revise the paragraph introducing us to a student whose behavior is problematic. See if you can make your description more precise. You will share revisions within group and then class. 38

40 39

41 Behavior is the result of the interaction between the individual and their environment Antecedent 40

42 41 Conditions under which behavior is likely to occur Behavior Event that maintains the occurrence of behavior A ntecedent B ehavior C onsequence The Three-Term Contingency

43  What sets off his/her behavior?  Occurs before behavior  When told to get ready for bed, Darius brushes his teeth  When Sally sees a commercial for potato chips, she goes to the kitchen to get a snack  When Andrew sees the police car, he hides in the bushes. 42

44  When a peer teases her walk, Cologne uses verbal profanity  The parent’s directions are triggers for Demetri’s display of verbal noncompliance  When her sister sits next to her, Tristen screams. 43

45 Task 1c: Case Study Continued In your case study determine any antecedent or triggering events for your student’s problem behavior. Report to the group/class. 44

46  Unique situations/conditions that, when combined with the antecedents/context, increase or decrease in likelihood of the behavior  May not be present  May not be obvious  Need to examine patterns to determine if an event sets up a condition  Examples include:  hunger  social conflict  adequate sleep 45

47  Failing to take regularly delivered medication increases the likelihood that John will yell at his children.  When Susie has physical discomfort associated with sitting for long periods of time, she is more likely to throw down her books and cry. 46

48 Activity Patterns  When the chore has little variety and involves repetitive tasks, Mary is more likely to ignore her parents when asked to do the work.  Following a change in routine or schedule in Michael’s day, Michael will refuse to leave his assigned table when asked to line up.  On many days, as the time for math class nears Jamal gets sent to the office. Relationships with Others  Kevin is more likely to put his head down and close his book when he has been reprimanded by a teacher earlier in the day.  When Carla has spent the weekend at her father’s house, and her morning routine has been hurried, she is more likely to talk back to teachers and refuse to do what she is asked. 47

49 Task 1d: Case Study Continued In your case study determine any setting events for your student’s problem behavior. Report to the group/class. 48

50  What happens immediately after the behavior occurs Could be  Environmental  Provided by adult or peer  Internal etc. 49

51 50  Behaviors that result in desirable consequences for the student are more likely to occur in the future  Behaviors that result in undesirable consequences are less likely to occur in the future

52  Following Demetri’s verbal noncompliance, parent walks away and does the chore themselves  When Colleen uses verbal profanity, peers start to argue with her  When Tristen screams, the parent tells Tristen’s sister to move. 51 What is the Consequence?

53 They help us to get something we like.  Tangibles (food, toys, money, etc.)  Attention (smiles, conversation, scolding, etc.)  Internal states (rest, self- stimulation, success, etc.) They help us to escape or avoid something we do not like.  Tangibles (disliked food, scary items, etc.)  Attention (scolding, conversation, lectures, etc.)  Internal states (failure, fatigue, pain, etc.) 52

54 53 Given a Problem Behavior Get: Object, Activity, Sensation Avoid: Object, Activity, Sensation SocialPhysiologicalSocialPhysiological Precise Event Precise Event Precise Event Precise Event Object/ Activity Object/ Activity Precise Event Precise Event Video What about Power, Control, Choice, Revenge? These are large social constructs that do not help in the design of specific behavior support. Each can be narrowed to “what you get” or “what you avoid.” To make functional assessment functional the outcomes must be very specific and precise.

55 54 Given a Problem Behavior Get: Object, Activity, Sensation Avoid: Object, Activity, Sensation Social Physiological SocialPhysiological Precise Event Precise Event Precise Event Precise Event Object/ Activity Object/ Activity Precise Event Precise Event

56 Set of topographically different behaviors with similar or related purpose or function  Hit, spit, runaway, yell…  Escape difficult task request  Cry, hit, whine, raise hand, spit…..  Obtain adult attention  Make noises, poke at other student, ask a lot of irrelevant questions, asks to sharpen pencil or go to the bathroom….. What possible response class?

57  In life there is neither good nor bad, there are only consequences. From a Fortune Cookie-----  One person’s trash is another person’s treasures.  The only thing I have ever been good at is being bad. 56

58 Task 1e: Case Study Continued In your case study determine any consequent events for your student’s problem behavior. Report to the group/class. 57

59  Knowledge is definitely power (and at least comfort in being able to predict the outcomes).  Keeps people from wasting time and admiring or perpetuating the problem.  Creates a consistent base of understanding across family and professionals as they work together for the benefit for the child. 58

60 Finally! 59 Presenting……………… THE FBA!!!

61  Defined:  Functional behavioral assessment is a process for identifying the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior. 60

62 61 Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Content of Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior and Lifestyle *Team *Specialist *Hypothesis statement *Competing Behavior Analysis *Contextual Fit *Implementation Plan *Technical Adequacy * Strengths * Preferences * Lifestyle vision

63  Operationally defined problem behavior(s)  By response class  Identify routines in which the problem behavior is most and least likely to occur  Define the antecedent events (triggers; setting events) that predict when the problem behavior is most likely  Define the ONE consequence that contributes most to maintaining the problem behavior in that routine.  Summary Statement of findings. 62

64 63 Problem Solution From To Problem Solving Solution FBA Information

65  Simple/ Typical FBA  Interview the person who knows the student best  Build a summary statement Setting  Antecedent  Prob Beh  Consequence Event (Trigger) (Maintaining)  Use direct observation to verify the summary statement 64 FACTS Demo

66  Simple Functional Assessment  20 minutes to one hour  Involves interview(s) and/or checklists (e.g. FACTS)  Full Functional Assessment  Usually 2-4 hours  Involves interviews, observations, records search  Functional Analysis  Can be 20 hours or more  Involves above plus systematic experimental manipulations 65

67 66 Ms. Jones gambles Jenny’s Education on a hunch Let’s see what I can do to get Jenny to behave!!

68 1. Describe the specific behavior 2. Identify the variables impacting that behavior (e.g., antecedent, consequence) 3. Identify function of behavior 4. Develops a “best guess” or hypothesis to summarize the behavior and relationship to the environment 67 Behavior Antecedent ConsequenceFunction

69  Must be specific/ observable/ measurable  Must be behavior (an action done)  Repeated behavior  Behavior that interferes with learning  Look for patterns of problem behaviors 68

70 The following material is modified from Understanding Problem Behavior (An Interactive Tutorial) Terrance M. Scott, Ph.D. Carl J. Liaupsin, M.S. C. Michael Nelson, Ed.D 69

71 What is the motivation for Billy’s running to the lunch table? 70 A.Obtain items/activities B.Avoid adult C.Obtain peer attention

72 What is the motivation for Suzanne’s asking to work alone? 71 A.Obtain peer attention B.Obtain items/activities C.Avoid Peer(s)

73 What is the motivation for Ralph’s rude comment to Mr. Feeble? 72 A.Avoid task or activity B.Avoid Peer(s) C.Obtain adult attention

74 What is the motivation for Simon’s bizarre behavior? 73 A.Avoid task or activity B.Obtain peer attention C.Avoid Adult

75 Obtain…  Attention from peers  Attention from adults  Item  Internal stimulation Escape…  Avoid peers  Avoid adults  Avoid task/work  Internal stimulation 74

76 75

77 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior FBA Summary Statement 12 3 4 Head Hit In room with Noise and/or too many people Avoid noise/people Allergies 76

78 Sequoia did not eat lunch at school again. When she comes home from school and her father asks her to do her homework before she can have a snack, Sequoia refuses to work. Her father yells at her and sends Sequoia to her room where she has hidden some cookies. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Misses lunchFather asks her to go to do homework Sequoia refuses to work. Sent to room, where she eats cookies. What function? 77

79 Sequoia did not eat lunch at school again. When she comes home from school and her father asks her to do her homework before she can have a snack, Sequoia refuses to work. Her father yells at her and sends Sequoia to her room where she has hidden some cookies. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Misses lunchFather asks her to go to do homework Sequoia refuses to work. Sent to room, where she eats cookies. What function? Obtain items 78

80 Jason screams and hits his head when approached by his sisters, Marge or Allison. When he screams, Allison and Marge move away and leave Jason alone. This is more likely to happen if Jason is tired. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Tired Approached by Marge and Allison Scream,hits head Allison and Marge leave Jason alone What function? Avoid peers 79

81 Marla steals objects and hides them in her desk/backpack. There is always a “big scene” when the objects are discovered by her teacher. The problem is most likely during independent/seat work. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Teacher occupied Working alone Stealing objects Teacher causes “big scene” What function? Obtain Adult Attention 80

82 Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Caesar smokes pot with friends Police officer seen driving up Caesar hides behind a bldg. Police officer drives by without stopping. Caesar is smoking pot with his friends at the corner. When a police officer is seem driving down the street, Caesar and his friends duck behind a building. The police officer drives by and keeps going. What function? Escape adult/or peer attention 81

83 Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Joshua playing Video game Mother’s repeated request for Josh to pick up clothes. Joshua throws handset at mom and stomps off. Mom screams at Joshua then picks up his clothes. Joshua is playing a video game. His mother asks him to pick up the clothes he has left laying all around the living room. After repeated requests, Joshua throws the handset at his mother’s head and stomps off into his room. Mother screams at him and later picks up his clothes. What function? Avoid task 82

84 Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Jennifer is building with Legos. Loud musicJennifer rocks and screeches. Mom tells boys to turn the music off. Jennifer is building with legos. Her brother and his friends in the room turn up their music because it is their favorite new song. Jennifer begins rocking and screeching. Mother comes in and tells the boys to turn off the music. What function? Avoid sensory input 83

85 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior FBA Summary Statement 12 3 4 84

86 A hypothesis statement is… a summary statement that describes the team’s best guess about the relationship between the problem behavior and the characteristics of the environment – the specific function The goal is… to identify specific CONCRETE circumstances regularly associated with the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the problem behavior 85

87 When this occurs… (describe the circumstances) The child does… (describe the behavior) To get/avoid… (describe the consequences) 86

88  When the teacher’s attention is withdrawn or focused on another child, Lisa makes noises; this results in the teacher scolding her and moving her closer.  When Donna finishes work before the other students, she scribbles on her desk; this alleviates her boredom.  When Marcus is unclear about the directions for an assignment, he stays in his seat and talks to peers; this keeps him from feeling frustrated.  When unanticipated changes occur in the schedule, Ben throws his materials; having to pick them up delays the transition to the next activity. 87

89  There are many tools available to help in completing a functional assessment  There are two protocols in your handouts  F-BSP  FACTS  We will use the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS) 88

90  Need a mechanism to start the process – Request for Assistance  Informal Request  Formal Request  Parent contact before doing the FBA.  Parent Permission Form – Get On With It! 89

91 90

92  A two-page interview used by school personnel  Completed by people (teachers, family, clinicians) who know the student best, and used to either build behavior support plans, or guide more complete functional assessment efforts.  Can be completed in a short period of time (5-15 min).  Efficiency and effectiveness in completing the forms increases with practice 91

93 92

94  Eddie is a student that we will use for a case study  6th grader  Teacher reports that he is argumentative and sometimes engages in physical aggression 93

95 94 TeacherEddie Eddie, please begin your assignment. What assignment? I finished it. I don’t have it with me now. You never believe me. #*@% -YOU! Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike. The assignment you should be working on right now. Great, please show it to me. You have a choice… me your work or do it again. I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again. That’s disrespect…go to the office. Moves closer…& puts hand on Eddie’s shoulder. Make me.

96 95

97 Summarizing the problem for Eddie Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Extended structured activity (math) Do a difficult task Threatens, Uses profanity Remove from class. Function Avoid task 96

98  Based on the information you have brought with you complete this section of the FACTS 97

99  Examine each time/activity listed as 4, 5 or 6 in the Table from Step #4. If activities are similar (e.g. activities that are unstructured; activities that involve high academic demands; activities with teacher reprimands; activities with peer taunting) and have similar problem behaviors treat them as “routines for future analysis”.  Select between 1 and 3 routines for further analysis. Write the name of the routine, and the most common problem behavior(s). Within each routine identify the problem behavior(s) that are most likely or most problematic.  For each routine identifies in Step #5 complete a FACTS-Part B 98

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102  Complete a FACTS Part B on your student  Share with group/class 101

103  Pick a partner at your table.  Interview your partner, completing a FACTS Part B on your student.  Share with class. 102

104  The full FBA builds on the simple FACTS  The full FBA includes:  Observations of the student  Additional Interviews:  Other teachers  Other school personnel involved  Parents  Student 103

105  Do a full FBA when the hypothesis is rated at 3 or less on the initial teacher interview.  If the student is at risk for suspension, expulsion, alternative placement or other disciplinary action that would restrict access to public education. 104

106 Tools - Interviews:  Original teacher interview on FACTS  Interview of parent(s) – use first two pages of F- BSP  Interviews with other staff use either the FACTS, or first two pages of F-BSP  Interview with student: See student interview format (Appendix D - Crone & Horner) 105

107 Tools – Observations:  ABC Observation From – Appendix G  Functional Assessment Observation Form – Appendix H  Any tool you are familiar with that addresses the problem behavior.  Review handout forms 106

108 Observations:  At least one is required.  Do as many as necessary to develop a strong hypothesis.  If you are unsure of your behavior definition, do inter-observer reliability check – 85% or higher agreement is adequate.  If you are unsure that the problem is unique to this student, do observation on other students and compare. 107

109  Gather the interviews and observations  Complete the F-BSP form 108

110  If your case required a full FBA what would you add and why?  Share with group/class. 109

111  Problem behaviors are irrelevant  Aversive events are removed  Access to positive events are more common  Problem behaviors are inefficient  Appropriate behavioral alternatives available  Appropriate behavioral alternatives are taught  Problem behaviors are ineffective  Problem behaviors are not rewarded  Desired behavior ARE rewarded 110

112  Behavior support is the redesign of environments, NOT the redesign of the individual.  Make the environment effective for this kid  Behavior Intervention Plans describe what WE will do differently 111

113 An intervention is not an intervention unless it changes behavior! It typically begins by teaching the implementers how to do things differently. 112

114  Functional Behavioral Assessment  The use of interviews, rating scales, and observations to determine the function or purpose for the behavior, the variables that instigate it and the variables that maintain it.  Functional Behavioral Analysis  The manipulation of environmental variables to see how behavior changes based on a hypothesis of the purpose of the behavior. 113

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121  At any meeting in the process develop meeting norms around the following.  Be sure to have a note taker.  Be sure to have a time keeper.  Have a chair or facilitator.  Norms keeper to be a positive nag about following the norms. 120

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123  Any further Questions  Specific Concerns with a Student Assessment  On-line questionnaire within two weeks  How are you doing with your first case  Office Hours?  Interventions – Other training sessions 122

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