Presentation on theme: "A government controlled by a strong central authority with total control Scientific investigations in the Scientific Revolution -Heliocentric models -Gravity."— Presentation transcript:
A government controlled by a strong central authority with total control Scientific investigations in the Scientific Revolution -Heliocentric models -Gravity Steep mountainous terrain and archipelagos Belief in harmony with nature and its spirits Bellringer How are Shinto, animism and Daoism similar? What geographic feature influenced the development of Greek City States? Galileo Galilee and Sir Isaac Newtown are best known for what? What is an absolute Monarchy?
US policy during WWII to supply the allies with military equipment without getting involved Capital, surplus population, natural resources Gunpowder, moveable type, paper, silk, compass Cape of Good Hope Bellringer What is the name of the sea passage south of Africa? What are some inventions from China? What are two causes of industrialization? What was the Lend Lease Act?
Johann Gutenberg Anti Jewish feelings Orthodox Christianity, Absolute rulers, onion domes Nationalism caused high tensions between ethnic groups Bellringer Why were the Balkans known as the Powder Keg of Europe? Name two cultural pieces that passed from the Byzantine Empire to Russia What does Anti- Semitism mean? What man is credited with printing the first book in Europe?
Byzantine Empire When the Roman empire split, the Eastern half became known as the Byzantine Empire. Located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, the Byzantine capitol of Constantinople became rich with trade and culture. The Byzantine empire is credited with preserving Greek and Roman traditions, including the Twelve Tables of Rome.
Byzantine accomplishments The Byzantine Empire reached its greatest extent under Justinian. He is also credited with creating Justinian’s Law Code, based on the Twelve Tables of Rome. The Byzantines also separated from the Roman Catholic Church and founded the Greek Orthodox religion. Though still Christian, the Greek Orthodox allow priests to marry, celebrate primarily Easter and speak Greek during mass.
Congress of Vienna After Napoleon took over much of Europe, Nationalism developed. Nationalism affected all areas of Europe, but the Congress of Vienna, in an effort to stop the spread of revolutionary ideas, restored the old empires and Monarchs. The Austrian and Ottoman empires were especially difficult to rule. With many ethnic groups in each empire tensions rose quickly throughout the 1800s, leading into World War I.
Nationalism Extreme pride and devotion in one’s nation or ethnic group After the Congress of Vienna reestablished the old monarchs (legitimacy) the old empires began experiencing nationalism. In some cases nationalism helped unify nations, like Germany with Otto Von Bismarck’s help. Others, like the Austria- Hungarian and Ottoman empires were destroyed by nationalism. This area became known as the Balkans, or the Powder Keg of Europe leading into World War I
Austria-Hungary The Austrian empire had 4 major ethnic groups: -German Speaking- 25% -Slavic- 50% -Italian and Hungarian-25% Despite being the smallest group, the German Speaking Austrians ruled the Empire. As the ethnic groups began demanding changes in the early 1800s, the Austrian rulers shut down all attempts at reform. They clung to the traditional way of life and government.
Austria- Hungary The Ruler Franz Josef attempted reforms, but they only pleased the German Speaking minority. The Slavic people were still un- represented in government, fueling more discontent. In 1914 a Serbian Slav assassinated the archduke Franz Ferdinand. The assassin, Gavrilo Princip, felt that Franz Ferdinand represented the oppressive government. The assassination of Franz Ferdinand began World War I. The Austria-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I.
Ottoman Decline Like the Austrians and other monarchies, the Ottomans tried to put down demands for reform by sticking to traditional ways of life and government. It was unsuccessful and by the end of WWI the Ottoman empire had been dissolved into other empires Like Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman empire was vast and contained many different ethnic groups. These ethnic groups clashed and demanded independence.
Armenian Massacre In the late 1890s nationalistic pressures grew with in the Ottoman Empire. Islamic Turks and Christian Armenians had lived in peace for generations, but nationalistic tensions caused the Islamic Turks to attack Armenians. Over the course of 25 years, over 1 million Armenians were killed, with millions more fleeing to the United States The Armenian massacre occurred in what is now known as Turkey.
WWII- Appeasement Much of Eastern Europe was allowed to be seized by Hitler as Western Europe followed a policy of Containment. The appeasers hoped by giving in to Hitler on his claims to the Rhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia. It wasn’t until he invaded Poland that the Allies declared war
WWII World War II featured the allies against the Axis powers. England, France and Russia fought against Germany, Italy and Japan. Germany followed a policy of blitzkrieg and quickly controlled France. The axis powers relied on heavy aerial bombing and submarine warfare to maintain control. The Allies blockaded materials and supplied from Germany. The War takes a turn in the allies favor on D-Day, the invasion of Normandy beaches.
Yalta Conference As the allies discussed the ending of the war, they made a plan for Germany and its former holdings in Eastern Europe. Germany would be split into several zones of occupation between the Americans, British, French and Soviets. The Soviets were also given control of Eastern Europe to oversee the creation of new governments there.
Cold War Even though the allies successfully won World War II, there were tensions growing between the Democratic Americans and Communist Soviets. These tensions became the Cold war, a period of hostility without open fighting. The Cold War was a fight between the political ideologies of Democracy and Communism. Europe was split at the imaginary Iron Curtain, with Eastern Europe influenced by Communist Soviet Union
Cold War events Berlin air lift- airplanes take supplies into West Berlin to support democracy Cuban Missile Crisis- The United States blockades Cuba to prevent Soviet Missiles reaching Cuba Vietnam War- Communist North wants to unite Vietnam after the French leave. The US worries it will spread communism and helps the South resist. The Viet Cong win Korean War- NATO forces led by the US help the South fight the North communists. The war ends in an armistice at the 86 th parallel
Bosnia/ Serbia Genocide Ethnic tensions between the Slavic people in the former Austria-Hungary empire boiled over in the early 1990s. The Serbs, Slavs and Croats fought each other for control. The West takes a long time to intervene and hundreds of thousands die. In the end the nations of Serbia, Yugoslavia, Kosovo and Montenegro are established as independent nation states.
Byzantine influence The Early Russians lived in small villages, farmed and traded along the rivers connecting the Baltic and Black Seas. The first major city was the trading city of Kiev. Kiev maintained a strong trading connection with the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople, thus cultural diffusion occurred. Some of the most important influences were: -Orthodox Christianity -Byzantine domes influenced the onion domes of Russia -Powerful secular ruler
Mongols In the 1200s the Mongols swept out of Mongolia and quickly took over most of Russia, China and the Middle East. The Mongols who took over Russia were known as the Golden Horde. The Golden Horde influenced Russia by allowing them religious freedom and promoting trade with Eastern Europe. They also solidified the absolute power model of princes. The Mongols also cut Russia off from Western Europe at a time when the Western Europeans were making rapid arts and sciences 2:38-
Absolute Czars The Mongols established a system of absolute rule that continued throughout Russian history until the Russian Communist Revolution. The Czars of Russia mostly used oppression and fear to rule with total control. The Romanov family was the last of the Czars. Czars like Ivan the Terrible further centralized the power of the Russian Monarchy.
Enlightened Despots Russia was a backwards state, lacking industrialization, modernization and controlled by absolute monarchs However, several Czars and Czarinas did try to bring reform into Russia. Catharine the Great introduced some government reforms based on Enlightened ideas. Peter the Great introduced European style clothing and goods, but could not establish long lasting industrialization. Some refer to the rules of Catherine and Peter to as enlightened absolutism, because they incorporate enlightened and western ideas, but they hold onto power tightly
Pogroms Absolute Czars pushed for Russification, or creating a Russian culture. Unfortunately, the Jewish population did not fit into Russia, and were persecuted. Many were killed, others were beaten and forced from their homes. Still others were robbed and terrorized. Many Russian Jews fled to Eastern Europe and areas like Poland. The Pogroms, however, would not end until the end of WWII Anti-Semitism- anti Jew
Non-modernized Until 1919 Russia was a primarily agricultural nation. They had few factories and barely any methods of transportation. Russia’s backwardness would negatively impact them in the Russo-Japanese war, World War I, and World War II. With few infrastructure transportation systems, troops and supplies took a long time to move. The Tran Siberian railway was not finished until 1916
WWI- Nationalism The Russians joined World War I with France and Great Britain. For the Russians, the Slavic people trapped in the Austria-Hungary empire needed their protection. For the British and the French, it was a chance at glory against the tyrants of Germany and Austria Hungary. The Russians joined the war for two MAIN reasons: -Alliance system- the Russians had signed an alliance agreement to protect the Serbians -Nationalism- The Russians felt close to the Slavic peoples, who they said shared a common ethnic identity
World War I Disaster World War I proved how backwards Russia truly was. They were unable to produce enough military supplies for their troops (guns, blankets, weapons, food). Much of what was produced was stolen from Russian citizens or lay around. Russia’s infrastructure was nearly non-existent, and the supplies could not quickly reach troops. Nor could fresh troops brought in to the front lines. At home average citizens were starving and oppressed. Soon the people were demanding CHANGE
Russian Revolution Angry at the war, lack of food, and weak government, the people began to revolt. In March 1917 protesters marches on the Czar’s Palace in St. Petersburg shouting for Bread! Bread! Bread! Soon a Vladimir Lenin gained a following of loyal Bolsheviks, or communists. He gained support among the peasantry by promising Land, Peace and Bread Peace, Land, Bread Get out of WWI End serfdom and give peasants small plots of private land Guarantee basic daily needs After the Communist Revolution we begin referring to Russia as the Soviet Union
Lenin Led the communist Revolution. Depended on the support of the peasants to overthrow the government. Lenin got the Soviet Union out of the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Lenin instituted a strict communist government, but made some economic reforms to encourage farmers and business owners to continue producing for the nation (NEP)
Stalin Followed Lenin to control the Soviet Union. He instituted the 5 year programs which were meant to modernize the nation and increase production. Unfortunately the 5 year plans focused on quantity over quality and most nations around the world were not interested in buying Soviet made goods. Farmers were grouped onto huge collectives to work together, but most resisted the government taking their land, machines and homes.
WWII The Soviet Union joined World War II after the Germany invaded despite a secret agreement between the two. According to the agreement, neither the Soviet Union nor Germany would invade one another. At the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942 the Soviets began pushing the Germans out of Russian territories
Cold War The Cold War was a period of Hostility without open fighting between the Soviet Union and United States, or communism vs democracy. During the Cold war the Soviets maintained control over Eastern Europe, calling them buffer states against invasion from the Democratic West. The Soviets quickly developed a nuclear bomb, then atomic bomb. They also put the first satellite into space, named Sputnik. Sputnik terrified Americans who were concerned about Soviets spying on Americans from Space
Cold War Events While the Americans focused on containing communism behind the Iron Curtain, the Soviets focused on spreading Communism. Their occupied nations in Eastern Europe were all converted to communism. The Soviets even sent communist advisors to China, Cuba, Vietnam, and North Korea. The cold war had periods of escalating tensions such as the Berlin Air lift, Cuban Missile Crisis and the Korean and Vietnam wars.
Gorbachev Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985-1991. He instituted two reform programs: -Perestroika- Economic reform attempted by bringing in some free enterprise -Glasnost- openness with the nations of the West and an easing on restrictions on the Russian people Both reforms fail and lead to the downfall of the Soviet Communist Model.
Putin After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia became democratic nation. Putin was first elected in 1999 and re-elected for a second term. He still played a pivotal role in the government after his terms were finished, as prime minister. Then in 2012 Putin ran again and was elected president. Putin is criticized as being oppressive and acting like a dictator to maintain power.
Ukraine and Crimea current event Putin has recently ordered the Russian army to occupy both the Ukraine and Crimea. He says he is ensuring political stability amid recent protests in Ukraine and assimilating the ethnic Russians of Crimea back into the Russian Motherland. Despite repeated warnings and sanctions from the international community Putin continues to maintain control of these areas. Some compare the inaction to the appeasement of the pre-WWII era. Unfortunately the UN has no real power as Russia holds a seat on the Security Council, instead, the United States is dealing with NATO for a resolution