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Chapter 23 World War II Erupts

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1 Chapter 23 World War II Erupts
The Big Picture: The Treaty of Versailles ending World War I created an uneasy peace. Germany, Italy, and Japan fell under the sway of leaders promising order and glory. By the end of the 1930s, their aggression would plunge the world once more into war.

2 Chapter 23 Section 1: The rise of Dictators
Main Idea: The shattering effects of World War I helped set the stage for a new aggressive type of leader in Europe and Asia

3 Europe After World War I
The Treaty of Versailles was unable to satisfy all parties involved, many European nations wanted it to go farther. Germany suffered the most as a result of the Treaty, they were humiliated and suffered severe economic blows. The Treaty’s demands for German reparations helped bring about a period of inflation in Germany, German money had no value. Germany established the Weimar Republic, a democratic government, but it was not very strong.

4 Totalitarian Leaders Arise
Benito Mussolini was the first of the totalitarian leaders to emerge. Founded the Fascist party. Created a system of government that stressed the glory of the state, rights of individuals were second to the greatness of the state. Mussolini established a dictatorship, a government in which a leader holds all the power. Established a totalitarian regime, controlled all aspects of Italian life.

5 Adolf Hitler emerged as the leader of Germany.
In his early career he joined the Nazi Party, as a part of this party he discovered his talent for public speaking. While imprisoned for attempting to take over the German government by force he wrote Mein Kampf that outlined Hitler’s major political goals: Make Germany a world power. Blamed jews for Germany’s problems and believed they threatened the purity of the Aryan (white) race. Hitler gained support through his optimistic goals for Germany. Started moving to establish himself as a dictator. Started to build up the German military which went against the Treaty of Versailles.

6 Francesco Franco emerged as the fascist leader of Spain following the Spanish Civil War.
Joseph Stalin emerged as the communist leader of the Soviet Union (previously called Russia). Communism and Fascism were political opposites but used similar techniques to achieve their goals.

7 Totalitarian Governments and Military Force
Totalitarian leaders were not afraid to use violent force against their opponents and military force against other nations. In Japan the civilians were growing dissatisfied with the government. Japanese nationalists in the military, supported by the Japanese people, began to assert their power without approval of the government. Wanted to expand Japan, moved into the Chinese province of Manchuria. League of Nations tried to stop the spread of Japan but they did not have the power to do so. Italy invaded Egypt and conquered the country. The Ethiopian leader asked the League of Nations for help but the international community was unwilling to make a strong stand against aggression.

8 Hitler Takes Action After Hitler took power in Germany he began building up the German military which went against the Treaty of Versailles, convinced France and Britain to allow him to do so – called appeasement. Also Germany moved troops into a territory along the French border at Rhineland, France was still unwilling to take military action against Germany. Hitler’s next move was to attempt to force Austria to unite with Germany, when they refused he sent in troops. Broke the Treaty of Versailles further, were not permitted to expand their empire. He was allowed to do this too. Hitler was confident that no one would stop him, Hitler made moves to take over the German speaking part of Czechoslovakia called the Sudentenland. Hitler met with French and Great Britain’s leaders about the violations of the Treaty of Versailles and they agreed to allow him to do so. Called it a “peace for our time.”

9 Chapter 23 Section 2: Europe Erupts in War
Main Idea: Far from being satisfied by the actions of France and Great Britain, Germany turned to force and triggered the start of World War II.

10 World War II Starts British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain believed that his policy of appeasement, or giving in to aggressive demands to maintain peace, had prevented war. Hitler moved troops into the rest of Czechoslovakia, then he started creating alliances that would help him. Signed an alliance with Italy and the Soviet Union. Germany claimed that Poland had attacked them and used it as an excuse to invade Poland. Used blitzkreig, or a combination of air attack and fast moving strikes, to take over Poland.

11 German Forces Turn to the West
In 1939 France and Great Britain declare war on Germany and become the known as the Allies. Waited for Germany to make the first move. In May 1940 German troops invaded Belgium, they were met by Belgian, British, and French troops. The Allies were unable to stop the German assault. German forces took over much of France except for a small area called Vichy France. Great Britain stood alone against Germany, Hitler prepared to invade Great Britain. The British Royal Air Force was able to inflict heavy damages on German planes to prevent an attack. German planes began bombing London in an attack called Luftwaffe. Britain continued to hold out against the Germans.

12 Tensions in East Asia Japan wanted to expand their influence in Asia.
Joined an alliance with Germany and Italy to become the Axis Powers. Japan started attacking aggressively towards French colonies in Asia called French Indochina. United States reacted to the move by punishing Japan economically. Japan tried to meet with American government to compromise, Japanese leader Hideki Tojo convinced the Japanese government not to compromise.

13 Chapter 23 Section 3: The United States Enters the War
Main Idea: Isolationist feeling in the United States was strong in the 1930s, but Axis aggression eventually destroyed it and pushed the United States into war.

14 American Isolationism
Isolationism: the desire to avoid involvement in foreign wars. Americans would have gone to war to advance American interests but they wanted to choose when and where to do so. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was not an isolationist, but Congress was. Passed the Neutrality Act in 1935 that would keep America out of conflicts by barring the sale of goods or making loans to countries in war. Roosevelt wanted to do more to interfere with the conflicts going on in Europe, could only support the Neutrality Act. American isolationists wanted America to remain neutral. Remaining truly neutral meant allowing Fascist governments to have the advantage (such as Italy or Spain). After Japan invaded China Roosevelt could no longer stay quiet about his views on world events. Compared the spread of war to a contagious disease, urged Americans to “quarantine” aggressive nations. Became known as the “quarantine speech.”

15 Preparing for War Isolationists did not want to support Roosevelt in taking a stance against aggressive nations. Hitler’s actions in Europe strengthened Roosevelt’s position, appeasement was not working. Roosevelt got Congress to change the Neutrality Act to a policy called cash and carry under which countries were allowed to purchase American goods as long as they paid cash and picked up their orders in American ports. As Germans gained more victories this policy turned to “all aid short of war” to help the Allies fight off the Germans. Roosevelt decided to seek a third term as President, he was re- elected. After his re-election Roosevelt approved the lend-lease program that would send weapons to Great Britain despite their ability to pay for them. The ties between Great Britain and America were further strengthened by the Atlantic Charter that proclaimed the shared goals of the two nations against Hitler and his allies.

16 Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor Attack Scene Japan was hostile towards the United States for previous conflicts in Indochina and present views of the United States. American officials were determined not to fire the first shot and tried to negotiate with the Japanese. Japanese led a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The American base took heavy casualties and damage. Attack lasted barely two hours. Americans were fearful and angry at the attack on their own soil. On December 8th Roosevelt asked for a declaration of war against Japan. Three days later Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States.

17 Chapter 23 Section 4: Mobilizing For War
Main Idea: The outbreak of World War II spurred the mobilization of American military and industrial might.

18 Mobilizing the Armed Forces
The attack on Pearl Harbor ended most of the isolationist feelings that Americans still had. Now that America was entering the war we had to mobilize the country, or bring it into readiness. Starting in 1940 the US increased military spending, this spending had increased the profits of businesses and helped bring workers back to the factories. Mainly responsible for ending the Great Depression. Following Pearl Harbor President Roosevelt reinstated the draft, but many volunteered eager for the chance to defend their country. Women, while they could not participate in combat, took on many vital jobs in the military effort freeing men for combat. Took clerical jobs or helped build aircrafts and repair equipment. Some women joined the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) testing and delivering aircrafts. With all the new soldiers in the war the United States had to build lots of new army bases.

19 Mobilizing Industry and Science
Many factories that created consumer goods were converted into factories that built weapons or airplanes. Not only had to develop lots of war supplies but also had to ship them overseas. Government created new agencies to help mobilize the war effort – helped regulate what factories produced, what prices they could charge, and how the nation’s raw materials would be used. Key American business leaders led these agencies. Women moved into the factory jobs that men left behind, working women began to be represented by the symbolic figure known as Rosie the Riveter. Government spending during WWII helped end the Great Depression, as workers went back to the factories Roosevelt established the National War Labor Board to help settle labor disputes. The Manhattan Project was started to begin developing an atomic bomb. Technology would play a major role in WWII.

20 Fighting for Freedom at Home
African Americans were allowed to serve in WWII but they were still discriminated against. Their bravery and contributions often went unrecognized. As white males vacated their factory jobs for enlistment, thousands of African Americans found opportunities for them in the factories. Often forced to take the lowest-paying jobs. Hispanic’s also saw increased opportunities during WWII. The US established the Bracero Program that gave Mexican workers the opportunity to work temporarily in the United States Arrival of Hispanic workers led to increased tensions and race riots. Hispanics also served in the armed forces.

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