2Participants in World War II The Axis powers in orange and their colonies or puppet states in peach, the Allies in green and their colonies in light green, and neutral countries in gray.
3Rise of Dictatorship Soviet Union Italy Germany Japan Joseph Stalin: TotalitarianismGovernment controls all aspects of societyItalyBenito Mussolini: FascismExtreme nationalism, state comes first, individual liberty is secondaryGermanyAdolf Hitler: NazismForm of fascism, extreme racism, particularly aimed at JewsJapanHideki Tojo: MilitarismMilitary has increased power and plays strong role in government
4War In Europe Mussolini & Hitler June 18,1940 Munich, Germany German expansionHitler annexed (took over) AustriaClaimed the SudetenlandPart of CzechoslovakiaHitler planned to unite all German speaking peopleMussolini & HitlerJune 18,1940Munich, Germany
5British Prime Minister Munich ConferenceLeaders of Britain, France, Italy, and Germany met in Munich in 1938Britain and France agreed to give Hitler the Sudetenland and Hitler promised he would seek no further territoryThe practice of giving into aggression to avoid war is known as appeasementAppeasement failed when Germany took the rest of CzechoslovakiaBritish Prime MinisterNeville Chamberlain
7Adolf Hitler declared that he had no interest in European expansion Adolf Hitler declared that he had no interest in European expansion. The leaders of Great Britain and France wanted to believe him. Others, like Winston Churchill, were more skeptical of Hitler’s aims.
8Hitler invades Poland Hitler and Stalin sign a non-aggression pact Promised not to attack each otherHitler launches the blitzkrieg (Lightning war) against PolandPoland quickly falls to Hitler
10A Global Conflict After the invasion of Poland: Britain and France declare war on GermanyLater, the Allied powers would include: Britain, France, Soviet Union, United States, and ChinaThe Soviet Union joined the allies in 1941 after Hitler broke the Non-Aggression pactItaly and Japan join Germany to form the Axis powers
11FRANCE SURRENDERS!!! Spring 1940 Hitler’s armies smashed through Denmark, Norway, Holland, and BelgiumGerman armies marched into Paris, France in June 1940Hitler’s next target was Britain
13Battle of Britain After France fell, Britain stood alone in Europe British Prime Minister Winston Churchill rallied the people as Germany bombed BritainHitler never gets Britain, this was of great importance to the allied war effort.WHY?Britain gave the Allies a place to launch an offensive against Hitler
14Scenes from “The Battle of Britain” Germany’s massive bombardment of Britain
15FDR and American Policy FDR tried to help the alliesAsked for repeal of Neutrality laws, isolationists in Congress blocked the moveCongress agrees to a cash and carry planAllies could pay cash for arms and goods and carry them home in their own shipsThe threat of war convinces FDR to run for a third termFDR wins re-election (“Don’t change horses in midstream”)
16U.S.A. as the “Arsenal of Democracy” FDR asked Congress to pass the Lend-Lease actThe US sent war equipment to any country whose defense was vital to the USFDR and Churchill formed the Atlantic CharterPledged to support the right of all people to choose their own form of government
17Throughout the 1930s, Japan’s quest for raw materials drove its imperial expansion. In 1940, however, it still did not have a secure source of oil. Without oil, Japan could not expand, nor could it fight a war. Japan’s militarists began eyeing the Dutch East Indies, which had abundant oil supplies.
18The US enters the War! Japan’s war in Asia continued at a brutal pace The US tried to stop Japan’s aggression by refusing to sell oil and metal to JapanAn angry Japan launched a surprise attack on the USOn Sunday, December 7, 1941 Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii2400 Americans killed, and the US Pacific fleet destroyedFDR asked Congress for a declaration of war against JapanItaly and Germany declared war on the US
20Conclusion: What were the primary causes of WWII? Anger over Treaty of Versailles (Italy & Germany)Aggression by Germany, Italy, and JapanFailure of world powers US, BR, FR, League of Nations to stand up to aggressionThe failure of the policy of appeasementThe Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor