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Presentation on theme: "Totalitarianism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Totalitarianism

2 Totalitarianism Who would you vote for?
Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy

3 Totalitarianism Contestant #3 Contestant #2 Contestant #1

4 Total Control of State by a Dictator
Black Tuesday stock market crashes Treaty of Versailles Great Depression during 1930s Totalitarianism Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control -For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator

5 Totalitarianism Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Strict controls and laws Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters) One leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Terror and Fear

6 Totalitarianism *These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour

7 Communism based on theory by Karl Marx
Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from Communism LEFT WING based on theory by Karl Marx political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society” state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership) Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism

8 Fascism Fascism RIGHT WING intense nationalism and elitism
Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943. Fascism RIGHT WING intense nationalism and elitism totalitarian control interests of the state more important than individual rights maintain class system and private ownership Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax

9 JAPAN Emperor Hirohito System of Government: Militarism & Imperialism
Japanese military was really in charge. System of Government: Militarism & Imperialism Beliefs: Wanted to seize new territories and take control of natural resources (I.e., coal, timber, iron ore, control of China) Invaded the Chinese state of Manchuria.

10 Nazism extremely fascist belief of the National
Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) of Germany from 1933 to Nazism RIGHT WING extremely fascist belief of the National Socalist German Workers Party (NAZI) belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them

11 Essential Understandings
Economic disruptions following World War I led to unstable political conditions Worldwide depression in the 1930s provided opportunities for the rise of dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Japan The Treaty of Versailles worsened economic and political conditions in Europe and led to the rise of totalitarian regimes in Italy and Germany Japan emerged as a world power after World War I and conducted aggressive imperialistic policies in Asia

12 Vocabulary Fascism: ideology or attitude that favors dictatorial government, centralized control of private enterprise, repression of all opposition, and extreme nationalism. Marxist-Leninist Communism: version of a classless society in which capitalism is overthrown by a working-class revolution that gives ownership and control of wealth and property to the state Communism (beginning with Stalin): any system of government in which a single, usually totalitarian, party holds power, and the state controls the economy

13 TOTALITARIANISM Totalitarianism vs. Older concepts of dictatorship -Seek to dominate all -Seek limited, typically political aspects of national life control -Mobilize and make use -Seek pacified and submissive of mass political populations participation -Seek the complete -Attempt to rule over the reconstruction of the individual and society individual and society

14 Joseph Stalin 1924 Country: Soviet Union
Type of Government: Communism (dictatorship) Goals and Ideas: Crushed opponents and took control after Lenin’s death Held absolute authority; suppressed resistance Brought his country to world power status but imposed upon it one of the most ruthless regimes in history New Economic Policies (NEP) Collectivization: exported seized goods and gained enough capital to finance a massive industrialization drive Rapid industrialization: three 5-year plans The Great Purges: KGB = secret police killed thousands of army officers and prominent Bolsheviks who opposed Stalin Feared the growing power of Nazi Germany

15 Benito Mussolini 1922 Il Duce Country: Italy
Type of Government: Fascism (dictatorship) Goals and Ideas: Centralized all power in himself as leader (total control of social, economic, and political life) Ambition to restore the glory of Rome Invasion of Ethiopia Alliance with Hitler’s Germany Il Duce

16 Adolf Hitler 1933 Country: Germany Type of Government: Nazism (dictatorship) Goals and Ideas: Inflation and depression weakened the democratic government in Germany and allowed an opportunity for Hitler to rise to power Believed the western powers had no intention of using force to maintain the Treaty of Versailles Anti-Semitism: persecution of Jews Extreme nationalism: National Socialism (aka Nazism) Aggression: German occupation of nearby countries Lebensraum: unite all German speaking nations Anschluss: German union with Austria

17 Hideki Tojo Country: Japan Type of Government: Militarism
Goals and Ideas: Though Japan had an emperor, the military had taken control of the government Emperor Hirohito could not stand up to the powerful generals, but he was worshipped by the people, who often fought in his name Industrialization of Japan, lending to a drive for raw materials – how do you get raw materials? IMPERIALISM Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of China (the League of Nations did nothing) Hideki Tojo, Military Leader of Japan Hirohito, Emperor of Japan

18 Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare as well in words, posters, and films a constant battle was waged for the hearts and minds of Canadians on the home front just as surely as Canadian military weapons were used to engage the enemy on the frontlines A Weapon of war?

19 a Wartime propaganda was aimed at four main targets
for each a specific message was emphasized Target Message The enemy The allies Neutral countries The home front Eventual defeat Unity, loyalty and victory The right of the cause country The need for effort and sacrifice for victory

20 Intended Target?

21 Causes of World War II Fascist Aggression:
Dictators in Germany, Italy, & Japan wanted to build empires so they invaded other nations Responses to Fascist Aggression Appeasement: giving into a nation’s demands in order to avoid war To avoid war with Germany, Great Britain & France allowed Hitler to rebuild his military and invade other nations Isolationism: when a nation keeps to itself and remains neutral in wars between other nations The United States ignored these aggressive actions & hoped to remain neutral when the war began

22 Causes of World War II: The military aggression displayed by Germany, Italy, & Japan was a significant cause of World War II. All three countries wanted to establish empires, & little was done by the international community, consumed by their own economic woes to stop them. World War II began in 1939, when Hitler invaded Poland & Great Britain & France abandoned their previous policy of appeasement as it only encouraged the Axis Powers to continue their drives for empire, leading to another world war.

23 Intended target?

24 Persuading the public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing of bullets and planes. The Government launched an aggressive propaganda campaign with clearly articulated goals and strategies to fire up public support some of the nation's foremost intellectuals, artists, and filmmakers were recruited to wage this war

25 Allied & Axis Powers of World War II:
Allied Powers (Allies) Axis Powers: Great Britain Germany France Italy China Japan Soviet Union – From 1941 United States –From 1941

26 Allied Leaders & Roles in World War II:
Country Leader(s) and Roles in WWII Great Britain Neville Chamberlain – appeased Hitler; tried to avoid war Winston Churchill – motivated British people to “never surrender” to the Germans France Charles de Gaulle – leader of Free France Soviet Union Joseph Stalin – wanted to spread communism United States Franklin D. Roosevelt – brought U.S. into war Harry S. Truman – ordered the use of atomic bomb China Chiang Kai-Shek – nationalist leader of China

27 Axis Leaders & Roles in World War II:
Country Leader(s) and Roles in WWII Germany Adolf Hitler – wanted to create an empire for German-speaking people; started the war by invading neighboring countries Italy Benito Mussolini – allied with Hitler so he could build a large Italian Empire Japan Hideki Tojo – military dictator of Japan Emperor Hirohito – symbolic leader of Japan who told his people to surrender after atomic bombs dropped

28 What message is the artist trying to convey with this cartoon?
How does he feel about what Hitler did to Lenin? Explain your reasoning

29 European Theater: European Theater: In Europe & the Surrounding Areas:
Western Front: battles fought in Western Europe Mainly Great Britain, France, & the United States vs. Germany & Italy Eastern Front: battles fought in Eastern Europe Mainly between Germany& the Soviet Union Africa: battles fought in deserts of North Africa Allies fought against Germany & Italy Germans wanted control of the Suez Canal in order to have access to the oil-rich Middle East

30 Human Costs of World War II:
World War II was the most devastating war in history. Fighting cost the lives of millions of soldiers on both sides & sixty million people were killed. The majority of European deaths were civilians, as air bombings there left cities in shambles & the war also destroyed much of the countryside. Many people were homeless & famine and disease spread through the cities. The Holocaust claimed the lives of six million Jews Japan lost two million people. Tokyo was heavily damaged, while Hiroshima & Nagasaki were obliterated.

31 World War II Military Deaths:
Nation: Estimated Military Deaths: Soviet Union 7,000,000 Germany 3,500,000 China 2,200,000 Japan 1,300,000 Great Britain 350,000 United States 300,000

32 Estimated Number of People Killed by the Nazis:
Jews 6,000,000 Romani (Gypsies) 400,000 Polish Catholics 3,000,000 Ukrainians & Belarusians 1,000,000 Soviet Prisoners of War 3,500,000 Others: Included religious & political opponents; the seriously ill; & those whom the Nazis considered socially undesirable 1,500,000

33 Impact of World War II on Both Civilians & Soldiers:
The Allied home front played an important role in winning the war. Factories produced weapons & supplies for the war, & many women worked in the factories. The Allies used propaganda to help strengthen support for the war & to help conserve materials &resources, since there was a shortage of consumer goods.

34 How Did Anti-Semitism Become Part of Nazi Ideology:
Religious & cultural differences coupled with suspicion & envy had made the Hebrew people frequent scapegoats during times of crisis throughout the history of Europe. Increased movement by Jews into the mainstream of some European life led to increased prejudice as Jews were often stereotypically seen as more intellectual & successful & less nationalistic than others.

35 How Did Anti-Semitism Become Part of Nazi Ideology (cont.):
Hitler’s anti-Semitism could have stemmed from these or numerous other irrational prejudices, but its existence was used as a rallying point to unite the German people in their quest “first” in economic recovery & “later” for empire, Aryan glory & world domination. Nazis claimed that the German people were a “master race” & used the word “Aryan” to describe them. Hitler claimed that all non-Aryan people were inferior, & he wanted to eliminate people he considered inferior, including those of Jewish ancestry, Poles, Russians, Communists, Gypsies, homosexuals & anyone considered physically or mentally deficient.

36 Nuremberg Laws: Hitler & the Nazi Party passed the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which denied German citizenship to Jews & prevented them from marrying non-Jews. Jews were also ordered to wear the Star of David so they could be immediately recognized in public.

37 Krisitallnacht, or “Night of Broken Glass:
On November 9, 1938, Nazi troops attacked Jewish businesses, synagogues, & homes & killed approximately 100 Jews, known as Krisitallnacht, or “Night of Broken Glass.”

38 The Holocaust: the mass murder of over 6 million Jews and other groups (Gypsies, mentally and physically handicapped, etc.) by German Nazis.

39 The Holocaust: Hitler’s Final Solution:
Forced Jews across Europe into concentration camps, where they died en-route in cattle cars, were exterminated in specially designed showers & crematoriums & brutal experiments or barely survived in work camps. This genocide, called the Holocaust, occurred in every stage of the process, but most camps were located in Germany and Poland. When prisoners arrived at the concentration camps, they were examined by SS doctors. The Nazi soldiers allowed the strong (mainly men) to live in order to serve as laborers while many of the women, elderly, young children, & the disabled were killed soon after arriving at the concentration camps. Over six million Jews were killed during the Holocaust & more than 3 million Jews survived.

40 Map of Major Concentration Camps:

41 The Nuremberg Trials: The Nuremberg Trials, conducted in , saw twenty-two Nazi leaders charged with “crimes against humanity” for these actions, illustrating to the world that such behavior was indefensible & unacceptable regardless of the circumstances that each individual bears responsibility for his own actions. An International Military Tribunal, representing 23 countries, conducted the trials & ten of the Nazi leaders were hanged & their bodies were burned at a concentration camp.

42 After WWII Totalitarianism continued even through efforts to prevent it Continued in U.S.S.R, China, Decolonized territories like South Africa Continues today in North Korea, Russia(?), China(?), Venezuela (?), why?

43 Support for a Jewish Country:
Support for a Jewish state/homeland (Zionism) increased after the depth of the Holocaust’s atrocities were revealed & the country of Israel was founded in 1948 as a response.

44 Responses to these Social Outcomes: Mao Zedong
Did not accept these outcomes  continuously strove to combat these inevitabilities of industrialization Tried to preserve the “revolutionary spirit” of China Mid-1960s = launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Designed to combat the capitalist elements that had “infiltrated” China

45 The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
A campaign against the “Four Olds” = old thoughts, old culture, old habits, and old customs Message = revolution and rebellion is good Wanted to put “intellectuals” in their place Many schools were shut down Wanted to establish a more equitable society Brought healthcare, education, and rural industrialization to the countryside

46 Apartheid became law of land in 1948
Vote denied to black Africans and coloreds Blacks restricted to “homelands,” or “Bantustans” based on tribal groups Black homelands poverty-stricken – created pool of labor for white businesses All protests against the state severely repressed by the police and army

47 The African National Congress (ANC) was outlawed and leaders (Mandela) jailed or murdered (Biko)
International boycott weakened the economy Conflicts with guerrillas in Angola and Namibia seemed endless Afrikaner President F. W. De Klerk began dismantling apartheid system – freed Mandela Mandela elected president in 1994 Bitterness between whites and blacks remain – inter-tribal conflict between Zulus and Xhosas remains as well

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