2Totalitarianism Who would you vote for? Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health.Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitudeContestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy
4Total Control of State by a Dictator Black Tuesday stock market crashesTreaty of VersaillesGreat Depression during 1930sTotalitarianismIncreasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control -For example: Communism, Nazism, FascismTotal Control of State by a Dictator
5TotalitarianismGovernment establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)Strict controls and lawsMilitary state (secret police, army, military)Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)One leader (dictator); charismaticTotal conformity of people to ideas and leaderTerror and Fear
6Totalitarianism*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour
7Communism based on theory by Karl Marx Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from Communism LEFT WINGbased on theory by Karl Marxpolitical, economic and social systemthat creates a “classless society”state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and militarystate combined with elements ofcommunism
8Fascism Fascism RIGHT WING intense nationalism and elitism Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.Fascism RIGHT WINGintense nationalism and elitismtotalitarian controlinterests of the state moreimportant than individual rightsmaintain class system and privateownershipInteresting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
9JAPAN Emperor Hirohito System of Government: Militarism & Imperialism Japanese military was really in charge.System of Government: Militarism & ImperialismBeliefs: Wanted to seize new territories and take control of natural resources (I.e., coal, timber, iron ore, control of China)Invaded the Chinese state of Manchuria.
10Nazism extremely fascist belief of the National Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) of Germany from 1933 to Nazism RIGHT WINGextremely fascist belief of the NationalSocalist German Workers Party (NAZI)belief in the racial superiority of theAryan, the “master race”belief that all Germans should have“lebensraum” or living space in EuropeViolent hatred towards Jews andblamed Germany’s problems on them
11Essential Understandings Economic disruptions following World War I led to unstable political conditionsWorldwide depression in the 1930s provided opportunities for the rise of dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and JapanThe Treaty of Versailles worsened economic and political conditions in Europe and led to the rise of totalitarian regimes in Italy and GermanyJapan emerged as a world power after World War I and conducted aggressive imperialistic policies in Asia
12VocabularyFascism: ideology or attitude that favors dictatorial government, centralized control of private enterprise, repression of all opposition, and extreme nationalism.Marxist-Leninist Communism: version of a classless society in which capitalism is overthrown by a working-class revolution that gives ownership and control of wealth and property to the stateCommunism (beginning with Stalin): any system of government in which a single, usually totalitarian, party holds power, and the state controls the economy
13TOTALITARIANISMTotalitarianism vs. Older concepts of dictatorship-Seek to dominate all -Seek limited, typically politicalaspects of national life control-Mobilize and make use -Seek pacified and submissiveof mass political populationsparticipation-Seek the complete -Attempt to rule over thereconstruction of the individual and societyindividual and society
14Joseph Stalin 1924 Country: Soviet Union Type of Government: Communism (dictatorship)Goals and Ideas:Crushed opponents and took control after Lenin’s deathHeld absolute authority; suppressed resistanceBrought his country to world power status but imposed upon it one of the most ruthless regimes in historyNew Economic Policies (NEP)Collectivization: exported seized goods and gained enough capital to finance a massive industrialization driveRapid industrialization: three 5-year plansThe Great Purges: KGB = secret police killed thousands of army officers and prominent Bolsheviks who opposed StalinFeared the growing power of Nazi Germany
15Benito Mussolini 1922 Il Duce Country: Italy Type of Government: Fascism (dictatorship)Goals and Ideas:Centralized all power in himself as leader (total control of social, economic, and political life)Ambition to restore the glory of RomeInvasion of EthiopiaAlliance with Hitler’s GermanyIl Duce
16Adolf Hitler 1933Country: GermanyType of Government: Nazism (dictatorship)Goals and Ideas:Inflation and depression weakened the democratic government in Germany and allowed an opportunity for Hitler to rise to powerBelieved the western powers had no intention of using force to maintain the Treaty of VersaillesAnti-Semitism: persecution of JewsExtreme nationalism: National Socialism (aka Nazism)Aggression: German occupation of nearby countriesLebensraum: unite all German speaking nationsAnschluss: German union with Austria
17Hideki Tojo Country: Japan Type of Government: Militarism Goals and Ideas:Though Japan had an emperor, the military had taken control of the governmentEmperor Hirohito could not stand up to the powerful generals, but he was worshipped by the people, who often fought in his nameIndustrialization of Japan, lending to a drive for raw materials – how do you get raw materials? IMPERIALISMInvasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of China (the League of Nations did nothing)Hideki Tojo, Military Leader of JapanHirohito, Emperor of Japan
18Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare as wellin words, posters, and films a constant battle was waged for the hearts and minds of Canadians on the home front just as surely as Canadian military weapons were used to engage the enemy on the frontlinesA Weapon of war?
19a Wartime propaganda was aimed at four main targets for each a specific message was emphasizedTargetMessageThe enemyThe alliesNeutral countriesThe home frontEventual defeatUnity, loyalty and victoryThe right of the cause countryThe need for effort and sacrifice for victory
21Causes of World War II Fascist Aggression: Dictators in Germany, Italy, & Japan wanted to build empires so they invaded other nationsResponses to Fascist AggressionAppeasement: giving into a nation’s demands in order to avoid warTo avoid war with Germany, Great Britain & France allowed Hitler to rebuild his military and invade other nationsIsolationism: when a nation keeps to itself and remains neutral in wars between other nationsThe United States ignored these aggressive actions & hoped to remain neutral when the war began
22Causes of World War II:The military aggression displayed by Germany, Italy, & Japan was a significant cause of World War II.All three countries wanted to establish empires, & little was done by the international community, consumed by their own economic woes to stop them.World War II began in 1939, when Hitler invaded Poland & Great Britain & France abandoned their previous policy of appeasement as it only encouraged the Axis Powers to continue their drives for empire, leading to another world war.
24Persuading the public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing of bullets and planes. The Government launched an aggressive propaganda campaign with clearly articulated goals and strategies to fire up public support some of the nation's foremost intellectuals, artists, and filmmakers were recruited to wage this war
25Allied & Axis Powers of World War II: Allied Powers (Allies)Axis Powers:Great BritainGermanyFranceItalyChinaJapanSoviet Union – From 1941United States –From 1941
26Allied Leaders & Roles in World War II: CountryLeader(s) and Roles in WWIIGreat BritainNeville Chamberlain – appeased Hitler; tried to avoid warWinston Churchill – motivated British people to “never surrender” to the GermansFranceCharles de Gaulle – leader of Free FranceSoviet UnionJoseph Stalin – wanted to spread communismUnited StatesFranklin D. Roosevelt – brought U.S. into warHarry S. Truman – ordered the use of atomic bombChinaChiang Kai-Shek – nationalist leader of China
27Axis Leaders & Roles in World War II: CountryLeader(s) and Roles in WWIIGermanyAdolf Hitler – wanted to create an empire for German-speaking people; started the war by invading neighboring countriesItalyBenito Mussolini – allied with Hitler so he could build a large Italian EmpireJapanHideki Tojo – military dictator of JapanEmperor Hirohito – symbolic leader of Japan who told his people to surrender after atomic bombs dropped
28What message is the artist trying to convey with this cartoon? How does he feel about what Hitler did to Lenin? Explain your reasoning
29European Theater: European Theater: In Europe & the Surrounding Areas: Western Front: battles fought in Western EuropeMainly Great Britain, France, & the United States vs. Germany & ItalyEastern Front: battles fought in Eastern EuropeMainly between Germany& the Soviet UnionAfrica: battles fought in deserts of North AfricaAllies fought against Germany & ItalyGermans wanted control of the Suez Canal in order to have access to the oil-rich Middle East
30Human Costs of World War II: World War II was the most devastating war in history.Fighting cost the lives of millions of soldiers on both sides & sixty million people were killed.The majority of European deaths were civilians, as air bombings there left cities in shambles & the war also destroyed much of the countryside.Many people were homeless & famine and disease spread through the cities.The Holocaust claimed the lives of six million JewsJapan lost two million people.Tokyo was heavily damaged, while Hiroshima & Nagasaki were obliterated.
31World War II Military Deaths: Nation:Estimated Military Deaths:Soviet Union7,000,000Germany3,500,000China2,200,000Japan1,300,000Great Britain350,000United States300,000
32Estimated Number of People Killed by the Nazis: Jews6,000,000Romani (Gypsies)400,000Polish Catholics3,000,000Ukrainians & Belarusians1,000,000Soviet Prisoners of War3,500,000Others: Included religious & political opponents; the seriously ill; & those whom the Nazis considered socially undesirable1,500,000
33Impact of World War II on Both Civilians & Soldiers: The Allied home front played an important role in winning the war.Factories produced weapons & supplies for the war, & many women worked in the factories.The Allies used propaganda to help strengthen support for the war & to help conserve materials &resources, since there was a shortage of consumer goods.
34How Did Anti-Semitism Become Part of Nazi Ideology: Religious & cultural differences coupled with suspicion & envy had made the Hebrew people frequent scapegoats during times of crisis throughout the history of Europe.Increased movement by Jews into the mainstream of some European life led to increased prejudice as Jews were often stereotypically seen as more intellectual & successful & less nationalistic than others.
35How Did Anti-Semitism Become Part of Nazi Ideology (cont.): Hitler’s anti-Semitism could have stemmed from these or numerous other irrational prejudices, but its existence was used as a rallying point to unite the German people in their quest “first” in economic recovery & “later” for empire, Aryan glory & world domination.Nazis claimed that the German people were a “master race” & used the word “Aryan” to describe them. Hitler claimed that all non-Aryan people were inferior, & he wanted to eliminate people he considered inferior, including those of Jewish ancestry, Poles, Russians, Communists, Gypsies, homosexuals & anyone considered physically or mentally deficient.
36Nuremberg Laws:Hitler & the Nazi Party passed the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which denied German citizenship to Jews & prevented them from marrying non-Jews.Jews were also ordered to wear the Star of David so they could be immediately recognized in public.
37Krisitallnacht, or “Night of Broken Glass: On November 9, 1938, Nazi troops attacked Jewish businesses, synagogues, & homes & killed approximately 100 Jews, known as Krisitallnacht, or “Night of Broken Glass.”
38The Holocaust:the mass murder of over 6 million Jews and other groups (Gypsies, mentally and physically handicapped, etc.) by German Nazis.
39The Holocaust: Hitler’s Final Solution: Forced Jews across Europe into concentration camps, where they died en-route in cattle cars, were exterminated in specially designed showers & crematoriums & brutal experiments or barely survived in work camps.This genocide, called the Holocaust, occurred in every stage of the process, but most camps were located in Germany and Poland.When prisoners arrived at the concentration camps, they were examined by SS doctors.The Nazi soldiers allowed the strong (mainly men) to live in order to serve as laborers while many of the women, elderly, young children, & the disabled were killed soon after arriving at the concentration camps.Over six million Jews were killed during the Holocaust & more than 3 million Jews survived.
41The Nuremberg Trials:The Nuremberg Trials, conducted in , saw twenty-two Nazi leaders charged with “crimes against humanity” for these actions, illustrating to the world that such behavior was indefensible & unacceptable regardless of the circumstances that each individual bears responsibility for his own actions.An International Military Tribunal, representing 23 countries, conducted the trials & ten of the Nazi leaders were hanged & their bodies were burned at a concentration camp.
42After WWIITotalitarianism continued even through efforts to prevent itContinued in U.S.S.R, China, Decolonized territories like South AfricaContinues today in North Korea, Russia(?), China(?), Venezuela (?), why?
43Support for a Jewish Country: Support for a Jewish state/homeland (Zionism) increased after the depth of the Holocaust’s atrocities were revealed & the country of Israel was founded in 1948 as a response.
44Responses to these Social Outcomes: Mao Zedong Did not accept these outcomes continuously strove to combat these inevitabilities of industrializationTried to preserve the “revolutionary spirit” of ChinaMid-1960s = launched the Great Proletarian Cultural RevolutionDesigned to combat the capitalist elements that had “infiltrated” China
45The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) A campaign against the “Four Olds” = old thoughts, old culture, old habits, and old customsMessage = revolution and rebellion is goodWanted to put “intellectuals” in their placeMany schools were shut downWanted to establish a more equitable societyBrought healthcare, education, and rural industrialization to the countryside
46Apartheid became law of land in 1948 Vote denied to black Africans and coloredsBlacks restricted to “homelands,” or “Bantustans” based on tribal groupsBlack homelands poverty-stricken – created pool of labor for white businessesAll protests against the state severely repressed by the police and army
47The African National Congress (ANC) was outlawed and leaders (Mandela) jailed or murdered (Biko) International boycott weakened the economyConflicts with guerrillas in Angola and Namibia seemed endlessAfrikaner President F. W. De Klerk began dismantling apartheid system – freed MandelaMandela elected president in 1994Bitterness between whites and blacks remain – inter-tribal conflict between Zulus and Xhosas remains as well