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Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and.

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Presentation on theme: "Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy

4 Contestant #3 Contestant #2 Contestant #1 F. D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Adolf Hitler

5 Treaty of Versailles Black Tuesday stock market crashes Great Depression during 1930s Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control - For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator

6 What is it? What is it? Describe its characteristics… Describe its characteristics…

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8 Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Strict controls and laws (over the police, military, communications, and economic and educational systems) Strict controls and laws (over the police, military, communications, and economic and educational systems) Military state (secret police, army, military) Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters) Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters) One leader (dictator); charismatic One leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Control through terror and fear – secret police have the power to arrest, detain, torture, imprison, and execute anyone considered to be an “enemy of the state” Control through terror and fear – secret police have the power to arrest, detain, torture, imprison, and execute anyone considered to be an “enemy of the state”

9 Nazism FascismCommunism *These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism

10 I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from What is Communism? LEFT WING based on theory by Karl Marx revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”, where citizens would share equally in the wealth of the state; state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership) Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism

11 The Rise of Communism in Russia March, 1917 – democratic revolution ended tsarist rule of the Russian empire; March, 1917 – democratic revolution ended tsarist rule of the Russian empire; November – Bolshevik revolution marks the start of communist rule in Russia; November – Bolshevik revolution marks the start of communist rule in Russia; The “Russian Revolution” kills the Russian economy The “Russian Revolution” kills the Russian economy 1928 – Josef Stalin becomes the leader of the Soviet Union and introduces his 5 year economic plan, which includes massive industrialization and the collective ownership of agriculture 1928 – Josef Stalin becomes the leader of the Soviet Union and introduces his 5 year economic plan, which includes massive industrialization and the collective ownership of agriculture During the 1930s, Stalin feared people were working to overthrow him During the 1930s, Stalin feared people were working to overthrow him Began the “Great Purge” to rid society of “undesirable elements”; Between 1934 and 1940, millions of Soviet citizens were convicted of crimes, even if they didn’t exist, and either executed or sent to Siberian prison camps.

12 I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to What is Fascism? RIGHT WING intense nationalism and elitism totalitarian control interests of the state more important than individual rights maintain class system and private ownership Rejects the idea of individual liberty and the equality of persons and races; Citizens have “collective rights” that are defined by the state and policed by the military; The leader demands unquestioning support by the citizens by promoting a “national myth” – a story about the history and destiny of the country or people. Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax

13 Italy

14 The Rise of Fascism in Italy After WWI, the cost of living in Italy increased by 500%; After WWI, the cost of living in Italy increased by 500%; 1922 – Mussolini and his fascist followers “marched on Rome” and overthrew the government; 1922 – Mussolini and his fascist followers “marched on Rome” and overthrew the government; 1925 – Mussolini declared himself dictator of Italy; 1925 – Mussolini declared himself dictator of Italy; Democratic government abolished; Democratic government abolished; Propaganda used to reform Italy society; Propaganda used to reform Italy society; Believed that aggressive expansion abroad was the answer to Italy’s problems; consequently, in 1935, he ordered the invasion of Ethiopia. Believed that aggressive expansion abroad was the answer to Italy’s problems; consequently, in 1935, he ordered the invasion of Ethiopia.

15 Fascism in Japan Fascism in Japan The Great Depression was very hard on Japan, and militarism became to be seen as necessary for national survival; The Great Depression was very hard on Japan, and militarism became to be seen as necessary for national survival; Japan’s small size made it difficult for recovery; Japan’s small size made it difficult for recovery; it was decided that expansion into China was needed to stimulate economic recovery, by providing the natural resources necessary to do so; it was decided that expansion into China was needed to stimulate economic recovery, by providing the natural resources necessary to do so; additionally, Japan’s increasing population needed room to grow. additionally, Japan’s increasing population needed room to grow. In the late 1920s, a group of young officers took control of the army, supported by businessmen who wanted raw materials and a guaranteed market for Japanese industry. In the late 1920s, a group of young officers took control of the army, supported by businessmen who wanted raw materials and a guaranteed market for Japanese industry. In September, 1931, Japan invaded the Chinese region of Manchuria, and renamed it Manchuko. In September, 1931, Japan invaded the Chinese region of Manchuria, and renamed it Manchuko.

16 Japan’s Imperialism 1931: Manchuria 1931: Manchuria 1933: storms out of League of Nations 1933: storms out of League of Nations 1937: invades China 1937: invades China 1938: at war with China 1938: at war with China 1940: Axis Pact with Germany and Italy 1940: Axis Pact with Germany and Italy 1941: Pearl Harbor attack 1941: Pearl Harbor attack

17 Rape of Nanking, 1937 Full-scale Japanese invasion of China Full-scale Japanese invasion of China In systematic attacks on port city after surrender, 300,000 civilians killed; 80,000 women raped In systematic attacks on port city after surrender, 300,000 civilians killed; 80,000 women raped

18 Spain

19 FASCISM IN SPAIN The Depression was hard on Spain – very difficult to maintain democracy. The Depression was hard on Spain – very difficult to maintain democracy – first attempt by army and conservative coalition to seize power – only successful in some parts of the country – first attempt by army and conservative coalition to seize power – only successful in some parts of the country. Led to a brutal civil war between the Nationalists, under General Francisco Franco, and the Republicans. Led to a brutal civil war between the Nationalists, under General Francisco Franco, and the Republicans. Nationalists were supported by Hitler and Mussolini. Nationalists were supported by Hitler and Mussolini. Strategy focused on terror tactics to scare people into submission. Strategy focused on terror tactics to scare people into submission. Hitler used the Spanish Civil War as practice for his Luftwaffe. Hitler used the Spanish Civil War as practice for his Luftwaffe. Republicans were supported by Mexico and initially the USSR. Republicans were supported by Mexico and initially the USSR. By Feb. 1939, the Nationalists controlled all of Spain. By Feb. 1939, the Nationalists controlled all of Spain.

20 Franco ruled through a ruthless, totalitarian regime. Franco ruled through a ruthless, totalitarian regime. Critics of the government were silenced through censorship and violence Tactics included torture, long prison sentences, forced labour, and concentration camps.

21 Germany

22 I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to What is Nazism? extremely fascist, nationalistic and totalitarian based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe Violent hatred towards Jews (anti-Semitism) and blamed Germany’s problems on them Use of propaganda to “brainwash” the German people; Attacked anyone who opposed Nazi policy and eliminated all opposition; Belief in a strong military

23 The Rise of Nazism in Germany Germans were suffering greatly as a result of the Great Depression and the Treaty of Versailles; Germans were suffering greatly as a result of the Great Depression and the Treaty of Versailles; Hitler was a peaceful orator who spoke of a new German Empire that would destroy the Treaty of Versailles, take back Poland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia; Hitler was a peaceful orator who spoke of a new German Empire that would destroy the Treaty of Versailles, take back Poland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia; Hitler was a dictator – one supreme leader with all power; Hitler was a dictator – one supreme leader with all power; Skillfully used propaganda – promised jobs, denounced the Treaty of Versailles, and promised to make Germany the master of the world; Skillfully used propaganda – promised jobs, denounced the Treaty of Versailles, and promised to make Germany the master of the world; Attacked anything/anyone that opposed Nazi policies, including democracy, the Treaty of Versailles, peace, communism, socialism, and the League of Nations; Attacked anything/anyone that opposed Nazi policies, including democracy, the Treaty of Versailles, peace, communism, socialism, and the League of Nations; Declared the Aryans the “master race” (blue eyes and blond hair); Declared the Aryans the “master race” (blue eyes and blond hair); Practiced anti-semitism – the hatred and prejudice towards Jews; Practiced anti-semitism – the hatred and prejudice towards Jews; Eliminated all opposition; Eliminated all opposition; Rearmed Germany. Rearmed Germany.


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