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The Cold War 1945-1952.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1952."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Postwar Setting, 1945-1946 Demobilization and Reconversion
End of the War “Alive in ’45” “no boats, no votes” 1947 22nd Amendment to limit presidential terms to 2 Costs Psychological Divorce rate increased Feared unemployment Women back to “women’s jobs” Reinforcement of women in the home GI Bill of Rights 1944 Serviceman’s Readjustment Act Designed to: Forestall expected recession Reward soldiers Reduce fear of female competition Gave: Priority for jobs Occupational guidance Unemployment (52 weeks) Low-interest loans (VA) Paid education Results: 2.2 million attended college Huge cost to government Repaid in taxes


4 Truman’s Domestic Program
Legislation 21 point program Employment Act 1946 Only legislation passed Committed to economic growth Goal full employment “Peace is Hell” Inflation Demand outran supply Severe problem OPA, Truman lost control Weak measures Labor strikes United Mine Workers 45 days Loss of support “To err is Truman” Everyone against him Anti-communists Labor Civil Rights Women 80th Congress Reversal of New Deal Wagner Act 1935 Restricted unionist activities GOP tore it apart Taft-Hartley Act Banned closed shop Loyalty oaths “cooling off” periods Labor now special-interest Truman vetoed, Congress wins Civil Rights Jackie Robinson 1945 Walter White- NAACP Wants equality, fair practices “Dixiecrat” Revolt Democrat convention Leads to Truman’s 1948 executive order to bar discrimination in federal employment Morgan v. Virginia (interstate bus) Shelley v. Kraemer (housing)




8 Threat of Communism Heading to Cold War Stalin’s Plans Truman’s Plans
1946: Destiny of Eastern Europe and Poland in question Stalin’s Plans Buffer zone in Eastern Europe Soviet sphere of influence Puppet governments in Albania and Yugoslavia Truman’s Plans Russia in its borders Acceptance of communism would betray WWI and WWII vets Didn’t want to be “soft” Demanded free elections in Poland Iron Curtain Satellite nations Closed to US trade “no lasting peace with Capitalism” George Kennan US policy must be to “contain” Impossible to negotiate with Stalin Military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to prevent communism from spreading Churchill 1946 “Iron Curtain” Anglo-speaking alliance Truman Iran 1946 Cold War begins


10 Containment Truman’s Strategy Iran 1946 Greece and Turkey 1947
Development of atomic weapons Strengthen traditional military power Military alliances Military and economic aid to allies Espionage network Propaganda offensive Iran 1946 Greece and Turkey 1947 British needed help George C. Marshall pressured Congress to help $400 million assistance Truman Doctrine Active US engagement to contain communism Military and financial aid National Security Act 1947 National Security Council CIA Dept of Defense Marshall Plan Plan to restore European Economies Resistance to Communism George C. Marshall’s plan successful


12 Confrontation in Germany
Stalin’s progression Hungry/Czechoslovakia 1947/48 Brutal Coup Berlin 4 demilitarized zones Allies zones united 1948: Stalin blocks rail and highway routes into Berlin Trying to force Allies to accept Communist Berlin Truman’s response Operation Vittles Berlin Airlift Hinted use of atomic weapons May 1949 blockade ends Allies create Federal Republic of Germany Reaffirms containment Alliances North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) Marked formal end of isolation Collective security Mutual defense pact 1st peacetime alliance Nuclear umbrella Stalin’s Response Created German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Exploded 1st atomic bomb 1949 Warsaw Pact 1955 Alliance of satellite states


14 Re-election 1948 Inaugural address 1949 Congress Failure Fair Deal
Proposed civil rights, national health care legislation, federal aid to education, etc. Belief in continual economic growth Congress Expanded existing programs Raised minimum wage Increased social security Displaced Persons Act 205,000 Jews Did not accept new programs Failure Set US apart from Europe

15 Cold War in Asia Japan China Indochina Democratic success
MacArthur in charge Strengthened Japanese economy and government Occupation ended 1952 US retained bases China US failed Mao Ze Dong successful People’s Republic of China “Red China” US refused to recognize Americans shocked Indochina France needed help US crushes commies in Philippines

16 Nuclear Fear Soviets even the score American hysteria Truman’s answer
Atomic bomb 1949 American hysteria Air raid practice Bomb shelters Sky watchers Truman’s answer Development of H-bomb “Mike” 1952 10X Hiroshima (Marshall Islands) Soviet’s answered with own H NSC-68 Emphasised Soviet strength and aggressive intentions “world domination” Urged military defense Increase army Increase nuclear arsenal 4x defense budget Increase CIA actions



19 Korean War 1950-1953 June 24, 1950 “Greece of the East” War Action
North Korea invades South 38th parallel “Greece of the East” Step up to Communism Didn’t seek congress UN authorized action War Action MacArthur in charge Crosses into North Korea Tide turns when China enters war stalemate Attempt at Peace Spring 1951 MacArthur criticizes Truman April 10, 1951 MacArthur fired Armistice not signed until 1953 Korea divided Consequences Lives 54, 246 US dead 103,284 US wounded Money $54 billion Politics Accelerated NSC-68 Defense budget spending increased Atomic stockpile increased Worldwide military bases Indochina Enhanced powers of Presidency Precedent for war Second economic boom



22 Anti-Communism Hysteria
Loyalty and Security Widespread Fear US Communist Party Amerasia incident Canada exposes network Executive Order 9835 Federal Employee Loyalty Program Barred members of Communist Party Crusade Hoover Colleges center of “red” prop. “Zeal for Democracy” campaign 1947 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Attacked Hollywood Prosecuted leaders of US Communist Party Alger Hiss Symbol of liberal establishment Accused by Whittaker Chambers Questioned by Sen. Richard Nixon Claimed to be innocent Indicted for perjury “Pumpkin Papers” Rosenbergs’ Feb 1950 Klaus Fuchs arrested, atomic secrets Trail led to Rosenbergs Found guilty March 1951 Executed June McCarthyism List of “205” officials Symbol for personal attacks on individuals by means of indiscriminate allegations


24 Hysteria subsided McCarthy’s end Results challenged Army
Edward R. Murrow attacks Hearings proved he was a fraud Results 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act Vetoed by Truman Forced organizations deemed communist to register with Dept. of Justice Authorized arrest and detention during National emergency McCarran-Walter Immigration Act and Nationality Act of 1952 Maintained quotas Prevented homosexuals from entering country Power to deport those suspected of communism

25 Election of 1952 Public apprehension We want Ike!! Results
Loyalty in government Korea stalemate We want Ike!! Democrats Ike didn’t agree with domestic solutions Nominated Adlai Stevenson Out of touch with people Truman shadow Republicans Nominates Dwight D. Eisenhower War hero Pledged to end stalemate Running mate Richard Nixon “Checkers” speech Results Wins white house Narrow Republican control of houses Ends 1st phase of Cold War

26 Eisenhower Presidency
Fit American Mood Craved peace and stability Ike “middle of the road” Inspired confidence Dynamic Conservatism Big Picture Delegated authority Reconciled contending factions Governing Style Stayed out of legislative process Let Cabinet do it’s thing Laid-back to public Ruthless politician Focused on business principles Slashed budget Promoted private development of hydroelectric and nuclear power Economic advisors (CEA) Increases government spending in times of recession Centrist course Pragmatic Reduce taxes Contain inflation Govern efficiently Modern Republicanism Domestic program Resisted national health care Civil rights Federal aid to education “Eisenhoover” nickname Successes Large tax cut for wealthy and business Increased funding for public housing Increased minimum wage Extended social security Construction of St. Lawrence Seaway Interstate Highway System Great domestic achievement 40,000 miles Election of 1956 Democrats Adlai Stevenson Ike “Everything booming but the guns” Landslide victory


28 Jim Crow in Court Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953) Resistance climaxed
Jencks v. United States 1957 Accused has right to inspect government files used by prosecution Yates v. United States 1957 Overturned convictions of Communist party officials under Smith Act “Impeach Earl Warren” Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954 NAACP Thurgood Marshall Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson Federal district judges to monitored South vowed resistance Ike wouldn’t force White resistance increased Resistance climaxed Sept Little Rock, Ark. Gov. Orval E. Faubus Mobilized National Guard to block desegregation of Central High Court ordered withdrawl of Guard Eisenhower forced to back federal laws Cold war issue 1956 Campaign Civil Rights act of 1957 Established permanent commission Civil Rights act of 1960 No protection for voting


30 Phase 2 of the Cold War Ike and Dulles “Atoms for Peace”
Ike appoints John Foster Dulles as Secretary of State To appease GOP Threatened “instant, massive retaliation” to Soviet Eisenhower not happy No response to uprisings in East Germany (1953) or Hungary (56) “Atoms for Peace” Idea for both superpowers to contribute fissionable materials to a new U.N. agency for industrial progress Spirit of Geneva 1955, suspension of further atmospheric tests- 1958 Dulles’ “pactomania” Mutal defense pacts with 43 nations “new look” defense program More nucs Reduce conventional forces Early Distant warning system- Alaska Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center CIA Allen Dulles, head of CIA Covert actions to prevent communism TR’s grandson “Operation Ajax” Overthrow of Iran 1953 Sowed seeds of hatred Philippines Guatemala Operation pbsuccess Mercenaries overthrew the government Vietnam Domino Most expensive operations Ike refused to send troops French surrendered 1954 Vietnam divided “Domino Theory” All of SE Asia would follow US refused Geneva Peace Accords Created SEATO CIA installed South Korean government


32 Troubles in the Third World
Middle East 1954 Nasser/Egypt US tried to “woo” with building Aswan Dam Recognized China instead Nationalized the Suez Canal Joint attack of British, French and Israeli forces 1956 Did not consult Ike Eisenhower’s response Withdraw troops Anti-western sentiment in Middle East “Eisenhower Doctrine” US would send military aid to any country threatened by communism Lebanon 1958 Anti-America Peru/Venezuela 1958 Fidel Castro/Cuba 1959 Breakdown of peace Spy plane/Russia 1960

33 Eisenhower Legacy Warning to Americans Tried to prevent war
Threat to traditional military life “military industrial complex” Tried to prevent war

34 Affluent Society Coined by John Kenneth Galbraith 1958
1950’s fulfillment of American Dream 60% owned homes 75% owned cars 87% owned one T.V. GNP up 50% Despite debt 3 recessions Highest standard of living in US ever “people of plenty”

35 Industry and Computers
Federal spending major source of economic growth Doubled in 1950s Public spending Roads, airports, home mortgages, supported farm prices, stipends for education Electronics Consumption tripled Oil replaced coal as nation’s industry source ½ of budget went to defense industries R & D New Industries Plastics, chemicals, general dynamics 1944 International Business Machines Mark I calculator 500 miles of wiring 1946 US Army ENAIC, 1st electronic computer “debugged” Led to development of programs Changed economy like 1st steam engine, electric motor Sales to Industry and government Crucial to IRS 30,000 by mid 1960s for banks, hospitals, universities, etc. Silicon Valley 1951 Stanford Industrial Park


37 Costs of Big Business Rapid technological advances accelerated power of big “B” 1950: 20 firms over $1 billion Massive oligopolies formed TV, Auto Companies New multinational enterprises “executives” replaced capitalists Success required conformity “the Lonely Crowd” 1950 No creativity Changes in agricultural Scientific and mechanized Technology cut hours Factories in the fields More machines, more chemicals Changes to the Environment “Silent Spring” 1962 Rachel Carson Poisons DDT Blue-Collar Blues Consolidation transformed Labor Movement 1955 merger of AFL and CIO 85% of union members Higher wages, shorter workweeks, paid vacations, health-care coverage, automatic wage hikes Fewer strikes Decreased in numbers Automation New jobs in service sector 1956 White-collar workers outnumber blue collar for 1st time US now “post-industrial” society

38 Prosperity and the Suburbs
Real income rose More income spent on luxuries Credit installment plan 1st credit card: Diner’s Club Card 1950 Indebtedness rose Advertisement increased 58 million new cars purchased in 1950s Flashier models Exodus to the suburbs Highways constructed Income tax stimulated home sales Low interest loans (FHA, VA) 98% white 85% of homes built in 1950s Embodiment of American dream Greatest internal migration in US history 20 million Sunbelt and Cali profited

39 Consensus and Conservatism
“Togetherness” 1954 McCall’s Magazine Ideal couple/family Wed younger, children younger Fertility rate rose Increase in population Antibiotics Baby Boom Concern of child-rearing Dr. Benjamin Spock Don’t work Breastfeed Less scolding/spanking Trend 1950’s schools construction 1970’s homes Domesticity Pop culture glorified marriage Doris day, Debbie Reynolds Despite, increasing #s in workforce Laid groundwork for 1960’s feminism Religion Church attendance up Cold war anxieties Surge of religious activity Evangelist: Billy Graham RC Bishop: Fulton J. Sheen Prot. Minister: Norman Vincent Peale Pop Culture Movies Ben Hur, Ten Commandments Songs “I believe”, “Man Upstairs” Congress Added “under God” to pledge Added “In God we Trust” to currency Books Bible sales all time high Education Enrollment increased Progressive educators promoted socialibility Self-expression over math/science “well-rounded” students


41 Culture of the 1950s Reflected prosperity and fear of Cold War
Art New York/ Modernism Jackson Pollack Literature Dissatisfaction with jobs and homes John Clecter’s “The Wapshot Chronicles” 1957 John Updike’s “Rabbit Run” 1960 African-American Culture James Baldwin’s “Go tell it on the Mountain” 1953 Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man” 1951 Jewish Culture Bernard Malamud’s “The Assistant” 1957 Philip Roth’s “Goodbye Columbus” 1959 Southern Culture William Faulkner’s “The Town” 1957, “The Mansion” 1960 Eudora Weltly’s “The Ponder Heart” 1954 Hollywood Diminished interest in political issues Westerns, musicals, spectacles Working women replaced with dumb blondes Minorities invisible Movie attendance down 50% Message of Medium: TV 1946: 1 in 18,000 had a TV 1960: 9 out of 10 Radio stations transitioned ABC, CBS, NBC TV Guide, TV Diners Retail Davy Crockett 1955 Coonskin hats TV Culture At 1st showcased creativity and talent Opera Documentaries Sitcoms with ethnic families As price decreased demand for mass appeal increased Few with conflict or controversy Exception “The Honeymooners” “I love Lucy” controversy “Leave it to Beaver” the norm Difficult to assess impact Racial and gender stereotypes reinforced Virtually ended network radio Changed political life McCarthy Trials, Checkers speech


43 The Other America Poverty and Urban Blight
35 million below poverty line Bulk lived in inner-city slums African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans Michael Hummington’s “The Other America, Poverty in the United States” 1962 Poor trapped in vicious cycle Need for low-cost housing Black’s struggle for justice 1954 Brown decision sparked new civil rights movement Non-violent resistance Rosa Parks Dec. 1, 1955 Montgomery bus boycott Challenged in Supreme Court 1957 SCLC Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Latinos and Latinas Inadequate schools and housing Loss of culture Puerto Ricans Mexican-Americans 1951 Bracero program reintroduced 7.5 million new irrigated acres in SW Operation “wetback” Deportation of illegal immigrants Supreme Court Decision Banned exclusion of Mexican- Americans from juries (1954) Breaking boundaries 1st Mexican-American mayor 1958 Roberto Clemente Native Americans Poorest minority : 12 Termination bills of reservations passed relocated

44 Seeds of Disquiet Sputnik October 4, 1957
1st artificial satellite launched by Soviet Union Nov 3, 1957 Launched another satellite, this time with a dog inside US response Dec “flopnik” Doubled funds for missiles development Lead to creation of NASA 1958 New focus on education National Defense Education Act 1958 Math, science, and foreign languages new focus College enrollment increased 1.5 billion in new funding



47 Seeds of Disquiet Social consequences Elvis Presley Portents of Change
Juvenile delinquency Rock-n-Roll 1950’s Alan Freed Bill Haley’s “shake, rattle, and roll” 1954 First white Rock-n-Roll hit Corruption of youth, delinquency, mix races, devil’s music Elvis Presley Embodied new Rock-n-Roll movement Record sales tripled “American Bandstand” 1960 Outsiders Buddy Holly Frankie Lymon Richie Valens Portents of Change Movies Marlon Brando in “ The Wild One” 1954 James Dean in “Rebel without a Cause” 1955 Beatniks Revolt against middle-class America Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” 1956 Jack Kerouac’s “On the Road” 1957 Scorned conformity and materialism “square” America Romanticized outcasts Reaction Scorned by Mass media Admired by college youth



50 End of the “Nifty 50’s” Revolution on the way

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