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The Cold War 1945-1952. Postwar Setting, 1945-1946 Demobilization and Reconversion ▫End of the War  “Alive in ’45”  “no boats, no votes”  1947  22.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1952. Postwar Setting, 1945-1946 Demobilization and Reconversion ▫End of the War  “Alive in ’45”  “no boats, no votes”  1947  22."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Postwar Setting, Demobilization and Reconversion ▫End of the War  “Alive in ’45”  “no boats, no votes”  1947  22 nd Amendment to limit presidential terms to 2 ▫Costs  Psychological  Divorce rate increased  Feared unemployment  Women back to “women’s jobs” ▫Reinforcement of women in the home GI Bill of Rights ▫1944 Serviceman’s Readjustment Act ▫Designed to:  Forestall expected recession  Reward soldiers  Reduce fear of female competition ▫Gave:  Priority for jobs  Occupational guidance  Unemployment (52 weeks)  Low-interest loans (VA)  Paid education ▫Results:  2.2 million attended college  Huge cost to government  Repaid in taxes


4 Truman’s Domestic Program Legislation ▫21 point program ▫Employment Act 1946  Only legislation passed  Committed to economic growth  Goal full employment ▫“Peace is Hell” Inflation ▫Demand outran supply ▫Severe problem ▫OPA, Truman lost control ▫Weak measures ▫Labor strikes  United Mine Workers 45 days Loss of support ▫“To err is Truman”  Everyone against him  Anti-communists  Labor  Civil Rights  Women 80 th Congress ▫Reversal of New Deal ▫Wagner Act 1935  Restricted unionist activities  GOP tore it apart ▫Taft-Hartley Act  Banned closed shop  Loyalty oaths  “cooling off” periods  Labor now special-interest  Truman vetoed, Congress wins Civil Rights ▫Jackie Robinson ▫1945 Walter White- NAACP  Wants equality, fair practices ▫“Dixiecrat” Revolt  Democrat convention  Leads to Truman’s 1948 executive order to bar discrimination in federal employment  Morgan v. Virginia (interstate bus)  Shelley v. Kraemer (housing)




8 Threat of Communism Heading to Cold War ▫1946: Destiny of Eastern Europe and Poland in question Stalin’s Plans ▫Buffer zone in Eastern Europe ▫Soviet sphere of influence ▫Puppet governments in Albania and Yugoslavia Truman’s Plans ▫Russia in its borders ▫Acceptance of communism would betray WWI and WWII vets ▫Didn’t want to be “soft” ▫Demanded free elections in Poland Iron Curtain ▫Satellite nations  Closed to US trade  “no lasting peace with Capitalism” ▫George Kennan  US policy must be to “contain”  Impossible to negotiate with Stalin  Military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to prevent communism from spreading ▫Churchill  1946 “Iron Curtain”  Anglo-speaking alliance ▫Truman  Iran 1946  Cold War begins


10 Containment Iran 1946 Greece and Turkey 1947 ▫British needed help ▫George C. Marshall pressured Congress to help ▫$400 million assistance Truman Doctrine ▫Active US engagement to contain communism ▫Military and financial aid ▫National Security Act 1947  National Security Council  CIA  Dept of Defense ▫Marshall Plan  Plan to restore European Economies  Resistance to Communism  George C. Marshall’s plan  successful Truman’s Strategy ▫Development of atomic weapons ▫Strengthen traditional military power ▫Military alliances ▫Military and economic aid to allies ▫Espionage network ▫Propaganda offensive


12 Confrontation in Germany Stalin’s progression ▫Hungry/Czechoslovakia 1947/48  Brutal Coup Berlin ▫4 demilitarized zones ▫Allies zones united ▫1948: Stalin blocks rail and highway routes into Berlin  Trying to force Allies to accept Communist Berlin Truman’s response ▫Operation Vittles  Berlin Airlift  Hinted use of atomic weapons  May 1949 blockade ends  Allies create Federal Republic of Germany ▫Reaffirms containment Alliances ▫North Atlantic Treaty (NATO)  Marked formal end of isolation  Collective security  Mutual defense pact  1 st peacetime alliance  Nuclear umbrella Stalin’s Response ▫Created German Democratic Republic (East Germany) ▫Exploded 1 st atomic bomb 1949 ▫Warsaw Pact 1955  Alliance of satellite states


14 Re-election 1948 Inaugural address 1949 ▫Fair Deal  Proposed civil rights, national health care legislation, federal aid to education, etc.  Belief in continual economic growth Congress ▫Expanded existing programs  Raised minimum wage  Increased social security  Displaced Persons Act  205,000 Jews ▫Did not accept new programs Failure ▫Set US apart from Europe

15 Cold War in Asia Japan ▫Democratic success ▫MacArthur in charge ▫Strengthened Japanese economy and government ▫Occupation ended 1952  US retained bases China ▫US failed ▫Mao Ze Dong successful ▫People’s Republic of China  “Red China”  US refused to recognize  Americans shocked Indochina ▫France needed help ▫US crushes commies in Philippines

16 Nuclear Fear Soviets even the score ▫Atomic bomb 1949 American hysteria ▫Air raid practice ▫Bomb shelters ▫Sky watchers Truman’s answer ▫Development of H-bomb ▫“Mike” 1952  10X Hiroshima (Marshall Islands)  Soviet’s answered with own H NSC-68 ▫Emphasised Soviet strength and aggressive intentions  “world domination” ▫Urged military defense  Increase army  Increase nuclear arsenal  4x defense budget  Increase CIA actions



19 Korean War June 24, 1950 ▫North Korea invades South ▫38 th parallel “Greece of the East” ▫Step up to Communism ▫Didn’t seek congress ▫UN authorized action War Action ▫MacArthur in charge ▫Crosses into North Korea ▫Tide turns when China enters war ▫stalemate Attempt at Peace ▫Spring 1951 ▫MacArthur criticizes Truman ▫April 10, 1951 MacArthur fired Armistice not signed until 1953 ▫Korea divided Consequences ▫Lives  54, 246 US dead  103,284 US wounded ▫Money  $54 billion ▫Politics  Accelerated NSC-68  Defense budget spending increased  Atomic stockpile increased  Worldwide military bases  Indochina  Enhanced powers of Presidency  Precedent for war  Second economic boom



22 Anti-Communism Hysteria Loyalty and Security ▫Widespread Fear  US Communist Party  Amerasia incident  Canada exposes network ▫Executive Order 9835  Federal Employee Loyalty Program  Barred members of Communist Party Crusade ▫Hoover  Colleges center of “red” prop.  “Zeal for Democracy” campaign ▫1947 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)  Attacked Hollywood  Prosecuted leaders of US Communist Party Alger Hiss ▫Symbol of liberal establishment  Accused by Whittaker Chambers ▫Questioned by Sen. Richard Nixon  Claimed to be innocent  Indicted for perjury  “Pumpkin Papers” Rosenbergs’ ▫Feb 1950 ▫Klaus Fuchs arrested, atomic secrets ▫Trail led to Rosenbergs ▫Found guilty March 1951  Executed June McCarthyism ▫List of “205” officials ▫Symbol for personal attacks on individuals by means of indiscriminate allegations


24 Hysteria subsided McCarthy’s end ▫challenged Army ▫Edward R. Murrow attacks ▫Hearings proved he was a fraud Results ▫1950 McCarran Internal Security Act  Vetoed by Truman  Forced organizations deemed communist to register with Dept. of Justice  Authorized arrest and detention during National emergency ▫McCarran-Walter Immigration Act and Nationality Act of 1952  Vetoed by Truman  Maintained quotas  Prevented homosexuals from entering country  Power to deport those suspected of communism

25 Election of 1952 Public apprehension ▫Loyalty in government ▫Korea stalemate We want Ike!! ▫Democrats  Ike didn’t agree with domestic solutions  Nominated Adlai Stevenson  Out of touch with people  Truman shadow ▫Republicans  Nominates Dwight D. Eisenhower  War hero  Pledged to end stalemate  Running mate Richard Nixon  “Checkers” speech Results ▫Wins white house ▫Narrow Republican control of houses ▫Ends 1 st phase of Cold War

26 Eisenhower Presidency Fit American Mood ▫Craved peace and stability ▫Ike “middle of the road”  Inspired confidence Dynamic Conservatism ▫Big Picture  Delegated authority  Reconciled contending factions ▫Governing Style  Stayed out of legislative process  Let Cabinet do it’s thing  Laid-back to public  Ruthless politician  Focused on business principles ▫Slashed budget ▫Promoted private development of hydroelectric and nuclear power ▫Economic advisors (CEA) ▫Increases government spending in times of recession  Centrist course  Pragmatic ▫Reduce taxes ▫Contain inflation ▫Govern efficiently Modern Republicanism ▫Domestic program  Resisted  national health care  Civil rights  Federal aid to education  “Eisenhoover” nickname  Successes  Large tax cut for wealthy and business  Increased funding for public housing  Increased minimum wage  Extended social security  Construction of St. Lawrence Seaway  Interstate Highway System ▫Great domestic achievement ▫40,000 miles Election of 1956 ▫Democrats  Adlai Stevenson ▫Ike  “Everything booming but the guns”  Landslide victory


28 Jim Crow in Court Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953) ▫Jencks v. United States 1957  Accused has right to inspect government files used by prosecution ▫Yates v. United States 1957  Overturned convictions of Communist party officials under Smith Act  “Impeach Earl Warren” ▫Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954  NAACP Thurgood Marshall  Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson  Federal district judges to monitored  South vowed resistance  Ike wouldn’t force  White resistance increased Resistance climaxed ▫Sept Little Rock, Ark.  Gov. Orval E. Faubus  Mobilized National Guard to block desegregation of Central High  Court ordered withdrawl of Guard  Eisenhower forced to back federal laws  Cold war issue 1956 Campaign ▫Civil Rights act of 1957  Established permanent commission ▫Civil Rights act of 1960  No protection for voting


30 Phase 2 of the Cold War Ike and Dulles ▫Ike appoints John Foster Dulles as Secretary of State  To appease GOP ▫Threatened “instant, massive retaliation” to Soviet  Eisenhower not happy  No response to uprisings in East Germany (1953) or Hungary (56) “Atoms for Peace” ▫Idea for both superpowers to contribute fissionable materials to a new U.N. agency for industrial progress Spirit of Geneva ▫1955, suspension of further atmospheric tests Dulles’ “pactomania” ▫Mutal defense pacts with 43 nations ▫“new look” defense program  More nucs  Reduce conventional forces  Early Distant warning system- Alaska  Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center CIA ▫Allen Dulles, head of CIA ▫Covert actions to prevent communism  TR’s grandson  “Operation Ajax”  Overthrow of Iran 1953  Sowed seeds of hatred ▫Philippines ▫Guatemala  Operation pbsuccess  Mercenaries overthrew the government Vietnam Domino ▫Most expensive operations ▫Ike refused to send troops ▫French surrendered 1954  Vietnam divided ▫“Domino Theory”  All of SE Asia would follow  US refused Geneva Peace Accords  Created SEATO  CIA installed South Korean government


32 Troubles in the Third World Middle East ▫1954 Nasser/Egypt  US tried to “woo” with building Aswan Dam  Recognized China instead  Nationalized the Suez Canal  Joint attack of British, French and Israeli forces 1956  Did not consult Ike  Eisenhower’s response  Withdraw troops  Anti-western sentiment in Middle East “Eisenhower Doctrine” ▫US would send military aid to any country threatened by communism  Lebanon 1958 ▫Anti-America  Peru/Venezuela 1958  Fidel Castro/Cuba 1959  Breakdown of peace  Spy plane/Russia 1960

33 Eisenhower Legacy Warning to Americans ▫Threat to traditional military life ▫“military industrial complex” Tried to prevent war

34 Affluent Society Coined by John Kenneth Galbraith ’s fulfillment of American Dream ▫60% owned homes ▫75% owned cars ▫87% owned one T.V. ▫GNP up 50%  Despite debt  3 recessions ▫Highest standard of living in US ever  “people of plenty”

35 Industry and Computers Federal spending major source of economic growth ▫Doubled in 1950s Public spending ▫Roads, airports, home mortgages, supported farm prices, stipends for education ▫Electronics  Consumption tripled  Oil replaced coal as nation’s industry source ½ of budget went to defense industries ▫R & D  New Industries  Plastics, chemicals, general dynamics 1944 ▫International Business Machines ▫Mark I calculator ▫500 miles of wiring 1946 ▫US Army ▫ENAIC, 1 st electronic computer ▫“debugged” ▫Led to development of programs Changed economy like 1 st steam engine, electric motor ▫Sales to Industry and government ▫Crucial to IRS ▫30,000 by mid 1960s for banks, hospitals, universities, etc. ▫Silicon Valley 1951  Stanford Industrial Park


37 Costs of Big Business Rapid technological advances accelerated power of big “B” ▫1950: 20 firms over $1 billion ▫Massive oligopolies formed  TV, Auto Companies ▫New multinational enterprises ▫“executives” replaced capitalists Success required conformity ▫“the Lonely Crowd” 1950  No creativity Changes in agricultural ▫Scientific and mechanized ▫Technology cut hours ▫Factories in the fields  More machines, more chemicals Changes to the Environment ▫“Silent Spring” 1962 Rachel Carson  Poisons  DDT Blue-Collar Blues ▫Consolidation transformed Labor Movement  1955 merger of AFL and CIO  85% of union members ▫Higher wages, shorter workweeks, paid vacations, health-care coverage, automatic wage hikes ▫Fewer strikes ▫Decreased in numbers  Automation  New jobs in service sector ▫1956  White-collar workers outnumber blue collar for 1 st time  US now “post-industrial” society

38 Prosperity and the Suburbs Real income rose ▫More income spent on luxuries  Credit installment plan  1 st credit card: Diner’s Club Card 1950  Indebtedness rose  Advertisement increased ▫58 million new cars purchased in 1950s  Flashier models Exodus to the suburbs ▫Highways constructed ▫Income tax stimulated home sales ▫Low interest loans (FHA, VA) ▫98% white ▫85% of homes built in 1950s  Embodiment of American dream ▫Greatest internal migration in US history  20 million  Sunbelt and Cali profited

39 Consensus and Conservatism “Togetherness” ▫1954 McCall’s Magazine ▫Ideal couple/family ▫Wed younger, children younger ▫Fertility rate rose ▫Increase in population  Antibiotics Baby Boom ▫ ▫Concern of child-rearing  Dr. Benjamin Spock  Don’t work  Breastfeed  Less scolding/spanking ▫Trend  1950’s schools construction  1970’s homes Domesticity ▫Pop culture glorified marriage  Doris day, Debbie Reynolds ▫Despite, increasing #s in workforce  Laid groundwork for 1960’s feminism Religion ▫Church attendance up  Cold war anxieties ▫Surge of religious activity  Evangelist: Billy Graham  RC Bishop: Fulton J. Sheen  Prot. Minister: Norman Vincent Peale ▫Pop Culture  Movies  Ben Hur, Ten Commandments  Songs  “I believe”, “Man Upstairs”  Congress  Added “under God” to pledge  Added “In God we Trust” to currency  Books  Bible sales all time high Education ▫Enrollment increased ▫Progressive educators promoted socialibility  Self-expression over math/science  “well-rounded” students


41 Culture of the 1950s Reflected prosperity and fear of Cold War ▫Art  New York/ Modernism  Jackson Pollack ▫Literature  Dissatisfaction with jobs and homes  John Clecter’s “The Wapshot Chronicles” 1957  John Updike’s “Rabbit Run” 1960  African-American Culture  James Baldwin’s “Go tell it on the Mountain” 1953  Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man” 1951  Jewish Culture  Bernard Malamud’s “The Assistant” 1957  Philip Roth’s “Goodbye Columbus” 1959  Southern Culture  William Faulkner’s “The Town” 1957, “The Mansion” 1960  Eudora Weltly’s “The Ponder Heart” 1954 ▫Hollywood  Diminished interest in political issues  Westerns, musicals, spectacles  Working women replaced with dumb blondes  Minorities invisible  Movie attendance down 50% Message of Medium: TV ▫1946: 1 in 18,000 had a TV ▫1960: 9 out of 10 ▫Radio stations transitioned  ABC, CBS, NBC ▫TV Guide, TV Diners ▫Retail  Davy Crockett  1955 Coonskin hats TV Culture ▫At 1 st showcased creativity and talent  Opera  Documentaries  Sitcoms with ethnic families ▫As price decreased demand for mass appeal increased  Few with conflict or controversy  Exception “The Honeymooners”  “I love Lucy” controversy  “Leave it to Beaver” the norm ▫Difficult to assess impact  Racial and gender stereotypes reinforced  Virtually ended network radio  Changed political life  McCarthy Trials, Checkers speech


43 The Other America Poverty and Urban Blight ▫35 million below poverty line ▫Bulk lived in inner-city slums  African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans ▫Michael Hummington’s “The Other America, Poverty in the United States” 1962  Poor trapped in vicious cycle  Need for low-cost housing Black’s struggle for justice ▫1954 Brown decision sparked new civil rights movement  Non-violent resistance ▫Rosa Parks  Dec. 1, 1955  Montgomery bus boycott  Challenged in Supreme Court  1957 SCLC  Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Latinos and Latinas ▫Inadequate schools and housing ▫Loss of culture  Puerto Ricans  Mexican-Americans ▫1951 Bracero program reintroduced  7.5 million new irrigated acres in SW ▫Operation “wetback”  Deportation of illegal immigrants ▫Supreme Court Decision  Banned exclusion of Mexican- Americans from juries (1954) ▫Breaking boundaries  1 st Mexican-American mayor 1958  Roberto Clemente Native Americans ▫Poorest minority ▫ : 12 Termination bills of reservations passed  relocated

44 Seeds of Disquiet Sputnik ▫October 4, 1957 ▫1 st artificial satellite launched by Soviet Union ▫Nov 3, 1957  Launched another satellite, this time with a dog inside ▫US response  Dec “flopnik”  Doubled funds for missiles development  Lead to creation of NASA 1958 ▫New focus on education  National Defense Education Act 1958  Math, science, and foreign languages new focus  College enrollment increased  1.5 billion in new funding



47 Seeds of Disquiet Social consequences ▫Juvenile delinquency ▫Rock-n-Roll  1950’s Alan Freed  Bill Haley’s “shake, rattle, and roll” 1954  First white Rock-n-Roll hit  Corruption of youth, delinquency, mix races, devil’s music Elvis Presley ▫Embodied new Rock-n-Roll movement ▫Record sales tripled ▫“American Bandstand” 1960 ▫Outsiders  Buddy Holly  Frankie Lymon  Richie Valens Portents of Change ▫Movies  Marlon Brando in “ The Wild One” 1954  James Dean in “Rebel without a Cause” 1955 ▫Beatniks  Revolt against middle-class America  Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” 1956  Jack Kerouac’s “On the Road” 1957  Scorned conformity and materialism  “square” America  Romanticized outcasts  Reaction  Scorned by Mass media  Admired by college youth



50 End of the “Nifty 50’s” Revolution on the way

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