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Chapter 26 The Cold War Abroad and at Home 1945-1952.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 The Cold War Abroad and at Home 1945-1952."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26 The Cold War Abroad and at Home 1945-1952

2 Introduction How did President Truman’s and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin’s policies contribute to the Cold War? What was the containment policy and how did the US government implement it during the period 1947-1952? Why did New Deal liberalism weaken after WWII and what effects did its decline have on the Truman administration? What caused the red scare following WWII and why did Americans become so frightened over Communism? What impact did the Cold War have on Civil Rights for African Americans?

3 Demobilization and Reconversion Armed Forces drop from 12 million in 1945 to 1.5 million in 1948. Housing shortages, disappearing jobs 1 million marriages end in divorce Women lost their wartime employment and were to ld to find their fulfillment in marriage and motherhood. Many took lower paying jobs as office workers and saleswomen

4 The GI Bill of Rights Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (1944)- low interest loans for housing and or businesses, tuition payments, 1.5 million American veterans accepted the offer Middle Class

5 The Economic Boom Begins 1946 US Economy soaring US enjoyed favorable balance of trade because of the destruction of WWII in other parts of the world US is at an advantage in world banking Scientific and Technological advances lead to new industries US consumers go on a spending spree

6 Truman’s Domestic Program Little support for return to New Deal Employment Act of 1946 Unions on strike Truman blamed for inflation, strikes and housing shortages Republican Congress Atomic Race

7 Polarization and the Cold War US vs USSR over Poland Stalin breaks promise to hold free elections Communist Governments in Poland, Bulgaria and Romania Truman opposed the further expansion of communism fearing it would threaten our economic interests in Europe

8 The Iron Curtain Descends George F. Kennan- containment policy Winston Churchill- Iron Curtain speech, called for an anti-communist alliance Truman threatened force if Stalin did not leave Iran Proposed Nuclear limitation proposal was rejected Arms Race begins Economic pressure, nuclear threats, propaganda and subversion

9 Containing Communism Truman Doctrine- Greece and Turkey 1947 George C. Marshall- $17 billion Marshall Plan to assist rebuilding of Western European economies American businesses benefitted from economic expansion in Western Europe

10 Confrontation in Germany 1947-1948 Communist governments take over Hungary and Czechoslovakia US, Britain and France announce they are uniting their portion of West Germany and West Berlin, Stalin rejects the unification of Berlin and blockades the city. Truman begins the Berlin airlift. May 1949 Stalin calls off the blockade, West German Federal Republic is established NATO is formed as an anti-communist military alliance Stalin responds by establishing the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), developing their own atomic bomb and creating the Warsaw Pact- communist military alliance

11 Cold War in Asia US rebuild Japan Jiang Jieshi overthrown by Mao Zedong in China despite US assistance US builds Hydrogen Bomb. USSR build Hydrogen Bomb Thermonuclear threat expands

12 The Korean War 1950- 1953 1945 US liberates Korea from Japanese control USSR support North Korean government, US supports South Korean government North invades South in 1950 to reunify the country Truman sends troops under the leadership of Douglas MacArthur to repel the invasion UN also sends troops to help US When US troops reach China, Mao Zedong sends in troops to force MacArthur back. Truman orders MacArthur to the 38 th Parallel and to hold the position while peace negotiations are being held. MacArthur wants to bomb China and take over North Korea, Truman eventually replaces MacArthur Korean war costs US $54 Billion and 54,000 American lives US aid France in Indochina and create an alliance with New Zealand and Australia

13 The Eightieth Congress Taft-Hartley Act- passed over Truman’s veto less favorable to Unions Republican Congress tries to dismantle New Deal

14 The Politics of Civil Rights and the Election of 1948 1946 Truman creates the President’s Committee on Civil Rights Committee recommends anti-lynching, anti poll tax and other civil rights bills 1948 Democratic National Convention adopts measures presented by the committee on civil rights Southern Democrats form the Dixiecrats and nominated Strom Thurmond from South Carolina Truman runs as the Democrat and Thomas Dewey runs as the Republican Truman issues executive order integrating the military Truman wins is a surprise

15 The Fair Deal Social and Economic Reforms Minimum wage, social security benefits, public housing Conservative Democrats and Republicans blocked the New Deal and Truman turned his attention to Korea

16 Loyalty and Security Federal Employee Loyalty Program 1947 was established to root out possible communist in government positions 1947-1950 more than 500 people fired

17 The Anticommunist Campaign Loyalty program stimulated more fear 39 states passed laws requiring employees to take loyalty oaths House on Un American Activities Committee (HUAC) began hearings to find communist influence- Hollywood 10, black listing Truman and Supreme Court backed the actions

18 Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs Alger Hiss 1952 convicted of perjury for lying about giving government documents to the USSR Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage for giving atomic secrets to USSR Death sentence imposed

19 McCarthyism Senator McCarthy accused Democrats and members of the Truman administration of being Communists McCarran Internal Security Act and McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act

20 The Election of 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower- Republican Adlai Stevenson- Democrat Korea, Communist scare, military hero Republicans take White House and Congress

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