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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Crime and Criminal Justice This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Crime and Criminal Justice This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Crime and Criminal Justice This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Crime as a social problem Crime is a serious problem that endangers people’s lives, property, and sense of well being. 35 million people annually are victims of crime in the U.S. $1 billion is spent each year fighting crime. Official Statistics Uniform Crime Report (UCR) is leading source of information on crime. Produced each year by the FBI and tracks 3 categories of reported crime: Violent crime, property crime, and other offenses.

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Crime Statistics Violent crime: Murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault Property crime: Burglary, mother vehicle theft, arson, and larceny UCR is in process of being replaced by national Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) National Crime Victimization Survey is also sent to selected households to probe frequency of unreported crime.

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5 Crime and Delinquency Crime: behavior that violates the criminal law and is punishable by a fine, jail term, or other negative sanctions. 2 categories of criminal law: Misdemeanors: minor crime, punishment is fine or <1 year in jail (ex: public drunkenness) Felonies: serious crimes, punishment is >1 year in jail or even death. (ex: murder, rape) Delinquency: when someone under 18 commits a crime or violates engages in an antisocial act.

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Violent Crime Actions involving force, or threat of force against others and includes murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Murder: unlawful, intentional killing of one person by another. Mass murder: killing 4 or more people at one time in one place Serial murder: 3 or more people over more than a month Manslaughter: unlawful, unintentional killing of one person by another.

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Murder, cont. Very accurate statistics as most don’t go unreported. Men are bulk of offenders and victims 90% of murder victims over age 18, and half are between 20 and 35 Most murderers kill people of their same race Poor people are more likely to kill and be killed

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Rape Act of violence in which sex is used as a weapon against a powerless victim. Several kinds of rape: Forcible rape: forced sex on adult of legal age Statutory rape: sex with someone under legal age of consent Acquaintance rape: forced sex involving people who meet in a social situation (also called date rape)

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Rape, cont. Rape is very often unreported so rates don’t reflect extent of problem. Men are most often the offenders Rapists tend to be under age 25 and victims also under age 25 Offenders and victims are usually of the same race

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Property Crime Taking property from another without force, threat of force, or the destruction of property Most frequently reported in victimization surveys is burglary African Americans and Latinos/as have a higher than average risk of being burglarized than whites Most frequently reported index crime is larceny-theft Statistics on auto theft are relatively accurate Insurance companies require reporting auto theft

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12 Occupational and Corporate Crime Occupational (White-Collar) Crime Illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or normal business activity Examples: employee theft, embezzlement, soliciting bribes Corporate Crime Illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation with its support. Examples: unlawful labor practices, price fixing, deceptive advertising Direct losses from corporate crime are immense and cost significant amounts of tax payer money in comparison to losses from street property crime

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Organized Crime A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit Examples: Drug trafficking, prostitution, gambling, loan- sharking, money laundering, and large-scale theft such as truck hijackings Syndicated crime networks thrive because there is great demand for illegal goods and services Organized crime often links up to legitimate businesses and forms alliances with law enforcement and politicians.

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile delinquency involves a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by a young person under a specific age Juvenile crime accounts for 16% of crime in U.S. Status offenses are not criminal acts per se, but are illegal because of the offender’s age Examples: Skipping school, buying and consuming alcoholic beverages, running away from home Most juvenile cases are heard in juvenile court or by special judges.

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Who commits crime? Men are more likely to be arrested than women Teenagers and young adults are most likely to be arrested for serious crimes such as homicide, rape, and robbery People from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to be arrested for violent and property crimes People from upper classes generally commit white-collar or elite crimes Low-income African Americans are overrepresented in arrest data

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Explanations of Crime Biological: Cesare Lombroso: 19 th century Italian Criminals are biological throwbacks (atavists)to earlier stage of evolution William Sheldon Mesomorphs: muscular, aggressive and assertive More prone to crime than other 2 types Endomorphs: fat, soft, round, extroverted Ectomorphs: thin, wiry, sensitive, and introverted Today : Violence is a natural and inevitable part of human behavior Link between brain injury and crime?

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Explanations of Crime (cont) Psychological: People with lower IQs commit more crime than people with higher IQs Validity of IQ tests have come under scrutiny Frustration-aggression hypothesis : Frustrated people take out aggression onto others

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Explanations of Crime Functionalist: Strain theory (Robert Merton) People feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals they can’t reach through approved means Response to these cultural pressures leads to: Conformity, Innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion Control theory Delinquency and crime are more likely when a person’s ties to society are broken Social bonds involve: Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Explanations of Crime, cont. Conflict Authority and power relations contribute to some people becoming criminals Crime as a status (not a behavior) is acquired when those in power create and apply rules to others. Radical-Conflict approach Crimes people commit are based on their class position Feminist approaches Gender discrimination, patriarchy, and a combination of capitalism and patriarchy explain why women commit crimes

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Explanations of Crime (cont.) Symbolic Interactionist Criminal behavior is learned through interaction and socialization with others 2 Theories: Differential association theory Associating with people who are more likely to deviate from social norms increases likelihood of committing crime. Labeling theory Criminals are persons who have been successfully labeled as such by others Initial act is called primary deviance When a person accepts the label and continues the behavior it is called secondary deviance

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Criminal Justice System Police Most visible link because they initially arrest and jail people Courts Responsible for determining guilt or innocence Punishment and prisons Serve four functions: retribution, social protection, rehabilitation, and deterrence

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Can crime problem be solved? Functionalist/Conservative: Community policing can help Learn about current problems to help prevent them 3 strikes and you’re out laws Conflict/Liberal: Must reduce power differential to solve problem Since race and crime are so connected, need to reduce racism to reduce crime Interactionist: Teach people importance of law abiding behavior

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