Female Anatomy Vulva: The female external genital organs. Mons Veneris: The mound of fatty tissue that covers the joint of the pubic bones and cushions the female during intercourse. Vagina: The tubular female sexual organ that receives the penis during intercourse and through which the baby pauses during childbirth. Cervix: The lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Uterus: The pear-shaped female reproductive organ in which the fertilized ovum implants and develops during childbirth.
Fallopian Tubes: The straw like tubes through which the ovum passes between the ovaries and the uterus. Ovaries: Female reproductive organs that produce ova and the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Clitoridectomy: Removal of the clitoris. A clitoridectomy is a rite of initiation into womanhood in predominately Islamic cultures in Africa and the middle east. The removal of the clitoris represents an attempt to ensure the girl’s chastity.
Male Anatomy Penis: The male organ that serves as a conduit for sperm during ejaculation and urine during urination. Testes: Males reproductive organs that produce sperm cells and male sex hormones. Scrotum: A pouch of loose skins that houses the testes.
Sperm: Male germ cell Semen: The whitish fluid that carries sperm. Testosterone: A male sex hormone that promotes development of male sexual characteristics and has activating effects on sexual arousal. Prostate: A male reproductive organ that produces semen.
Sex Hormones and Sexual Behavior The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen: A generic term for several female sex hormones that foster growth of female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle. Progesterone: A female sex hormone that promotes growth of the sex organs, helps maintain pregnancy, and is also involved in regulation of the menstrual cycle. Menstruation: The monthly shedding of the inner lining of the uterus by women who are not pregnant.
Sex Hormones and Sexual Behavior Sexual behavior among many lower animals is almost completely governed by hormones. Sex hormones have organizing and activating effects. An organizing effect would be the hormones predisposing lower animals toward masculine or feminine mating patterns. An activating effect would stimulation of the sex drive and facilitation of the sexual response.
Sex Hormones and Sexual Behavior Testosterone in adulthood apparently activates masculine behavior patterns. Men who are castrated or given drugs that decrease testosterone in the blood stream, they show a gradual loss of sexual desire. Testosterone stokes sexual desire in both men and women. Sex hormones promote the differentiation of our sex organs in a masculine or feminine direction. As adults, we may need certain levels of sex hormones to become sexually aroused.
Varieties in Sexual Expression… In our society, there exist a large variety of sexual behaviors and contraceptive methods. 24.7% of men and 7.6% of women report masturbating at least once monthly. 70% of people report experience with oral sex. 26% of men and 20% of women have some experience with anal intercourse.
Varieties in Sexual Expression… Ten to twenty percent of married couples report engaging in sexual intercourse a few times a year whereas 30% report a frequency of 2-3 times per week.
Methods of Contraception Issues to consider when choosing contraception: Convenience Moral Acceptability Cost Sharing responsibility Safety Reversibility Protection against STDs Effectiveness
The Sexual Response Cycle The sexual response cycle is characterized by vasocongestion and myotonia. Vasocongestion: Engorgement of blood vessels with blood, which swells the genitals and breasts during sexual arousal. Myotonia: Muscle tension. The sexual response cycle consists of four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution.
Excitement Phase Excitement Phase: The first phase of the sexual response cycle, which is characterized by erection in the male, vaginal lubrication in the female, myotonia, and increases in heart rate in both males and females. In the excitement phase, men experience an erection, the scrotal skin thickens and the testes become enlarged. In women, the vagina becomes lubricated, the clitoris swells and flattens. The breasts enlarge and blood vessels near the surface become more prominent.
Plateau Phase Plateau Phase: the second phase of the sexual response cycle, which is characterized by increases in vasocongestion, muscle tension, heart rate, and blood pressure in preparation for orgasm. In the plateau phase, breathing becomes rapid, like panting. Heart rate may increase to 100 to 160 beats per minute. In men the head of the penis shows some size increase and in women, the outer part of the vagina swells, contracting the vaginal opening in preparation for grasping the penis.
Orgasmic Phase Orgasmic Phase: The third phase of the sexual response cycle, which is characterized by pelvic contractions and accompanied by intense pleasure. In the male, semen collects at the base of the penis and muscle contractions propel the ejaculate out of the body. Orgasm in the female is manifested in 3 to 15 contractions of the pelvic muscles that surround the vaginal barrel.
Resolution Phase Resolution Phase: The fourth phase of the sexual response cycle, during which the body gradually returns to its prearoused state. Unlike women, men enter a refractory period. Refractory period: A period of time following orgasm during which an individual is not responsive to further sexual stimulation.
RAPE Rape: Forced sexual intercourse. 4 out of 5 rapes are committed by people the victims know. More than one out of three men in one study admitted to coercing women into sexual activity.
Why do Men Rape Women? Some social scientists argue that rape is often a man’s way of expressing social dominance over women. Alcohol figures prominently in rape. American culture socializes men into becoming rapists by reinforcing males for aggressiveness and competitive behavior. Men may misread women’s resistance as a game of playing hard to get. Men may delude themselves into thinking that “women actually want it.”
Myths About Rape In the United States there are many myths about rape…myths that blame the victim. Examples include “the woman is partly to blame if she dressed in a provocative manner.” or “women like to be talked into sex.” or “women say no but actually mean yes” Men who support traditional, rigidly defined gender roles are more likely to blame the victims of rape.
Preventing Rape From a sociocultural perspective, preventing rape involves publicly examining and challenging widely held attitudes that contribute to rape. On a personal level, there are things that women can do to protect themselves such as establishing signals with women in your local area, keeping windows locked, avoiding deserted areas and not talking to strange men on the street.
Preventing Date Rape Communicate your sexual limits to your date. Meet new dates in public places, and avoid driving with someone you’ve just met. State your refusal in definitive terms. Become aware of your fears. Pay attention to your “vibes.” Be cautious if you are in a new environment. If you’ve recently broken off a relationship with someone, don’t let him into your place. Stay sober and see that your date does too.
Types of Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual dysfunctions: Persistent, recurring problems in becoming sexually aroused or reaching orgasm. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: A sexual dysfunction characterized by lack of interest in sexual activity. Female sexual arousal disorder: A sexual dysfunction characterized by difficulty in becoming sexually aroused, as defined by vaginal lubrication, or sustaining arousal long enough to engage in satisfying sexual relations.
Types of Sexual Dysfunctions Male erectile disorder: A sexual dysfunction characterized by repeated difficulty becoming sexually aroused, as defined by failure to achieve or sustain erection. Orgasmic disorder: A sexual dysfunction in which one has difficulty reaching orgasm, although on has become sufficiently sexually aroused. Premature ejaculation: Rapid ejaculation that occurs with minimal sexual stimulation.
Causes of Sexual Dysfunctions Many cases of sexual dysfunctions reflect biological problems. Fatigue, diabetes and drugs can all impair sexual performance. Female sexual arousal disorder more commonly has psychological causes.
Sex Therapy Reducing performance anxiety Changing self-defeating attitudes and expectations. Teaching sexual skills. Enhancing sexual knowledge. Improving sexual communication.
STD Stats There are nearly 3 million new Chlamydia infections in the United States each year. Human Papilloma virus (HPV) is estimated to be present in 1/3 of college women and 8% of men aged 15 to 49. It is estimated that throughout the world, 15,000 people contract HIV.
Preventing STDs Don’t ignore the threat of STDs. Practice Abstinence. Engage in a monogamous relationship with someone who is not infected. Practice safer sex. Don’t use oral sex as an alternative. Talk to your doctor if you think you might be infected. When in doubt if the sex is safe…stop.
To the Instructor: The preceding slides are intended to provide you a base upon which to build your presentation for Chapter 13 of Nevid’s Psychology and the Challenges of Life. For further student and instructor resources including images from the textbook, quizzes, flashcard activities and e-Grade plus, please visit our website: www.wiley.com/college/nevid www.wiley.com/college/nevid
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