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ACE Personal Trainer Manual 5 th Edition Chapter 8: Physiological Assessments Lesson 8.1.

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Presentation on theme: "ACE Personal Trainer Manual 5 th Edition Chapter 8: Physiological Assessments Lesson 8.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACE Personal Trainer Manual 5 th Edition Chapter 8: Physiological Assessments Lesson 8.1

2 © 2014 ACE After completing this session, you will be able to: Identify signs and symptoms that merit immediate test termination Discuss various anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessments, and the appropriateness of each test Demonstrate various measurements to determine and evaluate body composition or risk category, including skinfold, body mass index, girth, waist-to- hip ratio, and waist circumference LEARNING OBJECTIVES

3 © 2014 ACE Identifiable signs or symptoms that merit immediate test termination: Onset of angina, chest pain, or angina-like symptoms Significant drop (>10 mmHg) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) despite an increase in exercise intensity Excessive rise in blood pressure (BP): SBP reaches >250 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reaches >115 mmHg Excess fatigue, shortness of breath, or wheezing (does not include heavy breathing due to intense exercise) TESTING AND MEASUREMENT

4 © 2014 ACE Identifiable signs or symptoms that merit immediate test termination (cont.): Signs of poor perfusion: lightheadedness, pallor, cyanosis, nausea, or cold and clammy skin Increased nervous system symptoms (e.g., ataxia, dizziness, confusion, or syncope) Leg cramping or claudication Subject requests to stop Physical or verbal manifestations of severe fatigue Failure of testing equipment TESTING AND MEASUREMENT

5 © 2014 ACE Anthropometry – the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body for the purposes of understanding human physical variation Anthropometric measures – measurements of height, weight, and/or circumference to assess body size or dimension: Easy to administer Require minimal equipment Demonstrate strong correlations to health, morbidity, and mortality Provide only estimations of body composition and fitness level ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AND BODY COMPOSITION

6 © 2014 ACE Body composition – the proportion of lean tissue to body-fat tissue Lean body mass (LBM): Muscles, connective tissue, bones, blood, nervous tissue, skin, and organs Metabolically active tissue that allows the body to perform work Essential body fat: Necessary for insulation and thermoregulation, hormone production, cushioning of vital organs, and maintenance of certain body functions Adipose tissue: Non-essential body fat that is stored throughout the body Either subcutaneously or viscerally Acts as a readily available source of energy or to cushion and protect vital organs ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AND BODY COMPOSITION

7 © 2014 ACE BODY COMPOSITION AND BODY SIZE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

8 © 2014 ACE Overweight: An upward deviation in body weight, based on the subject’s height 20% or more above ideal weight Overfat: An excess amount of body fat A more accurate depiction of body composition MEASUREMENT OF LEAN AND FAT MASS

9 © 2014 ACE BODY-COMPOSITION ASSESSMENTS

10 © 2014 ACE BODY-COMPOSITION ASSESSMENTS

11 © 2014 ACE The body is weighed on an underwater scale. 1.5 to 2.0% margin of error Most other methods of measuring body composition are based on formulas derived from underwater weighing research. Not a practical approach for the standard fitness center: Expensive Requires a lot of space Testing takes time and expertise Many people feel uncomfortable remaining submerged underwater after they have exhaled all available air from their lungs HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING

12 © 2014 ACE Subcutaneous body fat – can be measured using a skinfold caliper: Most practical and widely used method Ease of administration Low cost Produces a measurement that is ±2.0 to 3.5% of that obtained in hydrostatic weighing Jackson and Pollock three-site skinfold measurements: For men: Chest, thigh, and abdominal For women: Triceps, thigh, and suprailium SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS

13 © 2014 ACE JACKSON AND POLLOCK 3-SITE SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS: MEN

14 © 2014 ACE JACKSON AND POLLOCK 3-SITE SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS: MEN

15 © 2014 ACE JACKSON AND POLLOCK 3-SITE SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS: MEN

16 © 2014 ACE JACKSON AND POLLOCK 3-SITE SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS: WOMEN

17 © 2014 ACE JACKSON AND POLLOCK 3-SITE SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS: WOMEN

18 © 2014 ACE JACKSON AND POLLOCK 3-SITE SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS: WOMEN

19 © 2014 ACE GENERAL BODY-FAT PERCENTAGE CATEGORIES

20 © 2014 ACE Extensively used in healthcare settings to determine health risk and/or to establish target weight levels Provides an objective ratio describing the relationship between body weight and height Cannot determine actual body composition BMI can unfairly categorize some individuals: Extremely muscular or large framed individuals can score high, resulting in “overweight” or “obese” category Older adults with decreased lean tissue and excess body fat may score “normal” BMI = Weight (kg)/Height 2 (m) BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)

21 © 2014 ACE BMI REFERENCE CHART

22 © 2014 ACE An active, well-muscled client has recently participated in his employer’s wellness fair. He reports to you that, based on his weight and height measurements, he falls into the “overweight” category. However, according to the body-composition assessment you have conducted with him, he is considered healthy and not in danger of being overweight. How would you explain this discrepancy to your client? BMI CATEGORIZATION

23 © 2014 ACE Good predictors of health problems (e.g., waist circumference as it correlates to heart disease) Provides motivation as clients see changes in their body dimensions: Those interested in weight loss will be inspired by smaller numbers Individuals interested in muscular hypertrophy may be motivated by increases in girth GIRTH MEASUREMENTS

24 © 2014 ACE CIRCUMFERENCE SITES AND PROCEDURES

25 © 2014 ACE CIRCUMFERENCE SITES AND PROCEDURES

26 © 2014 ACE ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS FOR GIRTH MEASUREMENTS

27 © 2014 ACE The location of fat deposits may be a better indicator of disease risk. WHR helps to differentiate between: Gynoid (pear-shaped) individuals – excess fat in the hips and thighs Android (apple-shaped) individuals – excess fat in the abdominal area Greater health risk with a high WHR WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO (WHR)

28 © 2014 ACE Non-essential visceral fat contributes to android fat distribution: Encroaches on the vital organs of the body Excess abdominal fat has been associated with insulin resistance. Strong correlation between excess abdominal fat and a number of health risks For every 1-inch increase in waist circumference in men: BP increases by 10% Blood cholesterol level increases by 8% High-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases by 15% Triglycerides increase by 18% Metabolic syndrome risk increases by 18% WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE

29 © 2014 ACE CRITERIA FOR WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN ADULTS

30 © 2014 ACE Testing protocols are similar for all the anthropometric tests: Perform prior to exercise Explain the procedure and ensure the client is comfortable with the proposed measurement sites Each measurement must be performed using the precise landmarks Record values, evaluate, and classify the measurements using normative data Discuss the concerns related to abnormal readings Educate clients on strategies to reduce risk and improve overall health ANTHROPOMETRIC TESTING PROTOCOLS

31 © 2014 ACE Many people are often successful at losing weight or fat, but are unsuccessful at long-term weight management. Personal trainers must emphasize that exercise is a key component not only in effective weight loss, but also in maintaining a healthy weight. Exercise enhances daily caloric expenditure. Exercise, especially strength training, can minimize the loss of lean body weight. Exercise may suppress appetite and counteract the impact that diet may have on resting metabolic rate (RMR). Exercise makes the body more efficient at burning fat. LONG-TERM WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

32 © 2014 ACE Assessments are an integral part of any personal-training program. In addition to determining the appropriateness of various assessments, it is very important for a trainer to identify the signs and symptoms that merit immediate test termination. When conducted properly, anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessments can provide valuable health information for a trainer to use in designing programs. Periodic reassessments are also important to gauge progress and continue to foster the client–trainer relationship. SUMMARY


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