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© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Body Composition Chapter Six
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What Is Body Composition? Body composition is the body’s relative amounts of fat mass and fat-free mass Body fat includes two categories: –Essential fat is crucial for normal body functioning 3–5% of total body weight in males 8–12% of total body weight in females –The percentage is higher in women due to fat deposits in the breasts, uterus, and other sex- specific sites. –Most fat is storage in fat cells under the skin or adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat) and around major organs (visceral or intra-abdominal fat) 2
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Body Composition of a Typical Man and Woman (20-24 Years Old) 3
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Defining Overweight and Obesity Overweight is defined as total body weight above the recommended range for good health; ranges are set by population scales Obesity is defined as a more serious degree of overweight, characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat. The prevalence of obesity has increased from about 13% in 1960 to about 34% today 4
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Excess Body Fat and Wellness As rates of overweight and obesity increase, so do the problems associated with them Obesity reduces life expectancy by years Scientists believe that the average American life expectancy will soon decline by 5 years Excess body fat and wellness: Metabolic syndrome, diabetes Body fat distribution and health –Performance of Physical Activity –Emotional Wellness and Self-Image Problems associated with very low levels of body fat –Less than 8-12% for women and 3-5% for men –Amenorrhea and loss of bone mass 5
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Body Fat Distribution Distribution of body fat is an important indicator of health There are two recognizable shapes Apple (fat stored in the abdominal region) Pear (fat stored in the hips, thighs, buttocks) Excessive fat in the abdominal region increases the risk of many diseases such as: Diabetes Heart disease Stroke Certain cancers Early mortality 6
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Problems Associated with Very Low Levels of Body Fat Though not considered as prevalent a problem as obesity, too little body fat is also dangerous Extreme leanness is linked to the following disorders: ReproductiveCirculatory Immune system Eating disorders have been associated with low percentages of body fat, especially in women See the box “The Female Athlete Triad” 7
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Calculating Body Mass Index Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure that can classify risks, based on the concept that a person’s weight should be proportional to height To determine this, body weight in kilograms is divided by the square of height in meters Elevated BMI is linked to increased risk of disease, especially if associated with a large waist circumference 8
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Body Mass Index Classifications 9
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Assessing Body Fat Distribution Two of the simplest forms to assess body fat distribution are: –Waist circumference –Waist-to-hip ratios Disease risk increases with total waist measurement of more than –40 inches for men –35 inches for women Disease risk increases with total waist-to-hip measurement above –0.94 for young men –0.82 for young women 10
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Waist Circumference Classification 11
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Estimating Percent Body Fat There are many indirect methods that can provide an estimate of percent body fat Techniques include: Underwater weighing Skinfold caliper measurements Bod Pod Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) DEXA (Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) TOBEC (Total body electrical conductivity) 12
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Percentage of Body Fat as the Criterion for Obesity 13
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Setting Body Composition Goals If fat loss would benefit your health, set a realistic goal in terms of percent body fat or BMI If you have underlying health issues, check with your physician before setting a goal Use the ratings in Table 6.1 or Table 6.2 to choose a target value for BMI or percent body fat. A little weight loss at a time can be very beneficial; focus on a healthy lifestyle including proper diet and exercise 14
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Making Changes in Body Composition Lifestyle should be your focus Include the following as part of a regular program: Regular physical activity Endurance exercise Strength training Moderate energy intake Reassess your body composition occasionally during your program 15
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. BODY COMPOSITION Chapter Six
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter Six Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. RAth.
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