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Body Composition BODY COMPOSITION IS A Combination of muscle, bone, and fat. Lean body mass — muscle and other non-fat tissue Body fat — stored calories.

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Presentation on theme: "Body Composition BODY COMPOSITION IS A Combination of muscle, bone, and fat. Lean body mass — muscle and other non-fat tissue Body fat — stored calories."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Composition BODY COMPOSITION IS A Combination of muscle, bone, and fat. Lean body mass — muscle and other non-fat tissue Body fat — stored calories

2 Body Types (Somatotypes) Endomorph — large, soft, bulging body Mesomorph — solid, large-boned Ectomorph — slender, slight build Endomorph Mesomorph Ectomorph

3 Endomorph-Characteristics high percentage of body fat short neck large abdomen wide hips round, full buttocks short, heavy legs

4 Mesomorph Characteristics firm, well-developed muscles large bones muscular arms trim waist muscular buttocks powerful legs Broad shoulders

5 Ectomorph Characteristics Small bones Thin muscles Slender arms and legs Narrow chest Round shoulders Flat abdomen Small buttocks

6 firm, well developed muscles large bones muscular arms trim waist muscular buttocks powerful legs Broad shoulders high percentage of body fat short neck large abdomen wide hips round, full buttocks short, heavy legs Small bones Thin muscles Slender arms and legs Narrow chest Round shoulders Flat abdomen Small buttocks

7 Overweight vs. Obesity Overweight — exceed desirable body weight by 10% according to height weight charts. Obese — excessive amount of body fat Ideal body weight — amount you would weigh with appropriate level of body fat YOU CAN BE OBESE WITHOUT BEING OVERWEIGHT

8 WEIGHT CONTROL IS A MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEM IN US It is estimated that 34 million adults are obese. Excess body fat has been linked to high blood Pressure, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and certain forms of cancer. For these reasons, we all need to be concerned about our weight.

9 BODY MASS INDEX Body Mass Index (BMI) is an estimate of total body fat based on your height and weight.  BMI does not account for body composition or fat distribution.  BMI is most valuable for evaluating degree’s of obesity.  BMI may overestimate body fat in athletes or others with a muscular built or large body frame.  BMI in the healthy range does not necessarily mean that you are fit and healthy.  BMI is only one factor in determining a person’s health risk.

10 According to Height and Weight Charts This person is overweight. This person is normal.

11 Formula for calculating BMI Government Medical Guidelines established Underweight=<18.5 Normal Weight= Overweight= Obesity= BMI of 30 or greater The BMI is determined by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height measured to the nearest meter squared.

12 Calculate Your BMI Calculate your weight in kilograms by dividing your weight in pounds by 2.2: (________) ÷ 2.2= _______weight in kilograms Weight in lbs Calculate your height in meters by multiplying your height in inches by 2.54 and divide by 100: ___________ x 2.54 ÷ 100 = _______ height in meters height in inches Square your height in meters: _______ X ______= height square height in meters height in meters BMI = Weight in Kilograms = __________ Height in Meters 2

13 HEALTH RISK OF TOO MUCH BODY FAT Heart Disease Diabetes Stroke Hypertension (high BP) Some Cancers Sleep Apnea (pauses in breathing) Social discrimination Kidney disorders Surgical risk Less resistant to infections Problem during pregnancy Shortened life expectancy

14 FAT IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE…… Bone density Protects vital organs/bones Stores energy Insulation / warmth Production of estrogen (Menstrual cycle) Too little body fat is a health risk.

15 Menstruation Physically active females, particularly athletes who have a low percentage of body fat:  Have increased risk of delayed onset menstruation  Have increased risk of irregular menstrual cycle  May have complete cessation of menses Critical levels: about 17% for onset of menstruation and about 22% to maintain normal cycles. Levels change from person to person

16 Ideal % Body Fat Healthy Fitness Zone Males 7%-25% Females 13%-32% AGEMALESFEMALES UP TO %14-21% %15-23% 50 & Up12-19%16-25% Text Book Standards Looking Good Feeling Good FITNESSGRAM

17 METHODS TO MEASURE BODY FAT Under water weighing skin fold measurements Analysis by electrical impedance Measurement of body circumference

18 ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE Muscle, tendons and ligaments act as conductors. Fat acts as an insulator. The current will flow through the path of least resistance. Muscle tissue, which contains about 80% water, acts as a good conductor for the current. Fat carries far less water, thus making the current work harder to get around the fat. Thus creating a higher impedance value.

19 Creeping Obesity 20 zslowly gain fat over time

20 Weight Maintenance Input = Output

21 Permanent Weight Loss Diet Exercise Combination of the diet and exercise is the BEST

22 WEIGHT LOSS METHODS Diet Alone Weight loss in pounds

23 Caloric Cost of Physical Activity Calories = (# cal. burned/minute/pound) x (weight x minutes) Example: Calories = (.079 cal./min./lb.) x (120 lbs. x 30 min.) calories= 284

24 Weight Control Myths Exercise does not help with weight loss. Spot reduction - exercising certain areas will remove fat in that area. Increasing activity will increase your appetite. Excessive fat is a glandular problem.

25 IDEAL BODY WEIGHT Triceps Skinfold _____ mm + Calf Skinfold _____ mm Percent of Body Fat _____ % Sum = _____ mm Determine your fat weight by multiplying your weight times your percent of body fat. Weight _____ × % Fat × _____ Fat Weight = _____ Determine your lean body weight (LBW) by subtracting your fat weight from your weight. Weight _____ – Fat Wt. – _____ LBW = _____

26 IDEAL BODY WEIGHT Body fat =12% Lean body weight = 88%

27 IDEAL MINIMUM / MAXIMUM FEMALES Ideal Minimum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs. (13% fat).87 LBW.87 Ideal Maximum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs. (32% fat).68 LBW.68 Males Ideal Minimum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs. (7% fat).93 LBW.93 Ideal Maximum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs. (25% fat).75 LBW.75 Determine your ideal body weight by dividing your ideal percent of lean body weight into your lean body weight. Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs. Ideal % LBW How many pounds are you currently over or under your ideal body weight?


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