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Chapter Six Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. RAth

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1 Chapter Six Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. RAth
Body Composition pgs Chapter Six Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. RAth

2 Learning Objectives Define fat-free mass, essential fat, and non-essential fat and describe their functions in the body. Explain how body composition affects overall health/wellness. Explain the risks associated with being overfat or underfat. Describe how body composition is measured and assessed. Explain gender differences in location of body fat and disease risk. Review the section labeled “Common questions answered.”

3 What Is Body Composition? Pg. 156
Body composition is the body’s relative amounts of fat mass and fat-free mass Body fat includes two categories: Essential fat is crucial for normal body functioning 3–5% of total body weight in males 8–12% of total body weight in females The percentage is higher in women due to fat deposits in the breasts, uterus, and other sex-specific sites. Most fat is storage in fat cells under the skin or adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat) and around major organs (visceral or intra-abdominal fat)

4 Body Composition of a Typical Man and Woman (20-24 Years Old) Pg. 156

5 Defining Overweight and Obesity pgs. 176 - 178
Percent body fat is the proportion of the body’s total weight that is fat. Overweight is defined as total body weight above the recommended range for good health; ranges are set by population scales Obesity is defined as a more serious degree of overweight, characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat. The prevalence of obesity has increased from about 13% in 1960 to about 34% today

6 Creeping Obesity pg. 178 Physical activity decreases and leads to a decrease in metabolic rate. If energy expenditure drops more than energy intake, weight gain will occur. Corbin, C.B. (2004). Concepts of Fitness and Wellness. 12

7 Excess Body Fat and Wellness pgs. 178 - 179
As rates of overweight and obesity increase, so do the problems associated with them Obesity reduces life expectancy by years Scientists believe that the average American life expectancy will soon decline by 5 years Excess body fat and wellness: Metabolic syndrome, diabetes Body fat distribution and health Performance of Physical Activity Emotional Wellness and Self-Image Problems associated with very low levels of body fat Less than 8-12% for women and 3-5% for men Amenorrhea and loss of bone mass

8 Body Fat Distribution pg. 179
Distribution of body fat is an important indicator of health There are two recognizable shapes Apple (fat stored in the abdominal region) Pear (fat stored in the hips, thighs, buttocks) Excessive fat in the abdominal region increases the risk of many diseases such as: Diabetes Heart disease Stroke Certain cancers Early mortality

9 Body Fat Distribution and Chronic Disease pgs. 178 - 179
Location of fat is important to health

10 Problems Associated with Very Low Levels of Body Fat pgs 179 - 181
Though not considered as prevalent a problem as obesity, too little body fat is also dangerous Extreme leanness is linked to the following disorders: Reproductive Circulatory Immune system Eating disorders have been associated with low percentages of body fat, especially in women Amenorrhea- associated with women that have very low percentage fat See the box “The Female Athlete Triad”

11 Female Athlete Triad pg. 181
Condition consisting of three interrelated disorders

12 Estimating Percent Body Fat pgs. 183 - 185
There are many indirect methods that can provide an estimate of percent body fat Techniques include: Underwater weighing Skinfold caliper measurements Bod Pod Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) DEXA (Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) TOBEC (Total body electrical conductivity)

13 Skinfold Measurements pgs. 183 - 184

14 Underwater Weighing pg. 183
Bod Pod Pg. 183

15 DEXA pg. 185

16 Estimates Used in Lab pg. 185
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Body Mass Index Only an indicator of health Weight (kg) Height (m2) BMI = Waist-to-Hip Ratio Only an indicator of health

17 Assessing Body Fat Distribution pg. 185
Two of the simplest forms to assess body fat distribution are: Waist circumference Waist-to-hip ratios Disease risk increases with total waist measurement of more than 40 inches for men 35 inches for women Disease risk increases with total waist-to-hip measurement above 0.94 for young men 0.82 for young women

18 Calculating Body Mass Index pg. 182 - 183
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure that can classify risks, based on the concept that a person’s weight should be proportional to height To determine this, body weight in kilograms is divided by the square of height in meters Elevated BMI is linked to increased risk of disease, especially if associated with a large waist circumference

19 Body Mass Index Classifications pg. 182

20 Percentage of Body Fat as the Criterion for Obesity pg. 183

21 Setting Body Composition Goals pg. 185 - 186
If fat loss would benefit your health, set a realistic goal in terms of percent body fat or BMI If you have underlying health issues, check with your physician before setting a goal Use the ratings in Table 6.1 or Table 6.2 to choose a target value for BMI or percent body fat. A little weight loss at a time can be very beneficial; focus on a healthy lifestyle including proper diet and exercise

22 Making Changes in Body Composition pg. 186
Lifestyle should be your focus Include the following as part of a regular program: Regular physical activity Endurance exercise Strength training Moderate energy intake Reassess your body composition occasionally during your program

23 Chapter Six Body Composition

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