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Growth and Development

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Presentation on theme: "Growth and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth and Development
Page 450

2 Reproductive System Reproductive System- body of systems containing the organs that make possible the production of offspring Male Reproductive System- During puberty, the testes (male reproductive glands) produce testosterone (male hormone)- sperm are stored in the epididymis (network of tubes located behind the testes)- when sperm leave the epididymis, they pass through the vas deferens where it mixes with other secretions and it’s then called semen- semen exits the penis through an ejaculation (series of forceful muscular contractions)- page 438

3 Reproductive System Problems with the Male Reproductive System-
1. Injury- wear protective gear 2. Cancer- most common cancer for males ages 14-34 3. Hernia- internal organ pushes against or through a surrounding cavity wall- common hernia when intestines push through scrotum- hernia can be caused by incorrect heavy lifting 4. STD’s- can cause sterility

4 Reproductive System Female Reproductive System- 3 key functions: 1. store egg cells 2. create offspring 3. give birth to baby New life is formed through a process called fertilization (male sperm cell joins with female egg cell)- once egg is fertilized, travels to fallopian tube to the uterus where it attaches to the wall of the uterus and begins to grow- embryo (first 8 weeks)/ fetus (8 weeks to born)- baby born after 9 months

5 Reproductive System During puberty, egg cells mature and are released by the ovaries which is called ovulation (release of one mature egg cell each month)- the uterus lining thickens before the release of egg because it is getting ready for the fertilized egg- if egg not fertilized, the lining breaks down and sheds- this menstruation is when the lining material, the unfertilized egg and blood flow out of the body (aka period)- usually lasts 5-7 days and happens every 28 days- this is called the menstrual cycle (hormonal changes that occur in females from the beginning of one menstruation to the next- usually beings 9-16 y.o.- may be irregular for the first few years- cramps before and during is normal

6 Reproductive System Problems with the Female Reproductive System:
1. Cancer- breasts, ovarian, uterus, cervix 2. Infertility- inability to get pregnant 3. Ovarian Cysts- growths in ovaries- heaviness in abdomen abdominal pain, swelling and bloating 4. STD’s- spread through sexual contact Care: practice good hygiene, practice abstinence, don’t wear tight clothing, self exams, changes pads or tampons every few hours

7 Building Blocks of Life
Fertilization takes place in mother’s reproductive system- egg is fertilized in one of her two fallopian tubes – when sperm joins egg, a film is produced around egg so no other sperm cell can enter the egg- travels to uterus and the cell divides into groups of cells called cluster cells which is the embryo (fertilization to 8 weeks)- embryo attaches to uterus and the cells continue to divide into cells that have specific jobs-by the end of the 8th week, the embryo’s organs have started to develop and is now called a fetus (8 week to birth)- page 452

8 Building Blocks of Life
Fetus receives nourishment through the placenta (thick, rich tissue that lines the walls of the uterus during pregnancy and that nourishes the fetus)- fetus gets food and oxygen through the blood vessel in the umbilical cord and carries away waste (tube that connects the mother’s placenta to the fetus) After 9 months, the baby is ready to be born 3 Stages of Birth: 1. Contractions begin (muscles in uterus squeeze and release)- cervix begins to dilate (entry of uterus open) 2. Cervix continues to dilate and contractions become very strong- helps to push bay through cervix, birth canal and out of body 3. Once baby is born, placenta not needed- placenta pushed out of body

9 Heredity Heredity- passing of traits from parents to children- including health problems Egg cell have 23 chromosomes (threadlike structure found within the nucleus of a cell that carry codes for inherited traits) and Sperm cells have 23 chromosomes- when join, it makes 46 chromosomes which are what the rest of the body has- Genes (basic units of heredity) Genetic Disorders (disorder caused partly or completely by a defect in the genes) – can happen when have more or fewer than 46 chromosomes- down syndrome

10 Heredity Environment (sum total of person’s surroundings)- fetus environment is in uterus Prenatal Care (steps taken to provide for the health of a pregnant female and her baby)- visits to obstetrician may use ultrasound and ensure baby healthy- eat healthful foods, exercise, rest, avoid drugs Birth Defects (abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability or death)- some environmental factors that may contribute: 1. Poor nutrition 2. Alcohol, drug, tobacco and medicine abuse 3. Infections- need to be vaccinated before become pregnant 4. STD’s- herpes and syphilis can pass to newborn baby

11 Stages of Development Stages of Development:
1. Infancy- first year of life- doubles in height and triples in weight 2. Early Childhood- toddlers ( 1-3 y.o.)- learn and explore world, walk and talk 3. Middle Childhood- preschoolers (3-5 y.o.)- curious and imaginative 4. Late Childhood- (6-11 y.o.)- school is important- creative 5. Adolescence- not a child but not an adult- preparing for adulthood- puberty (8-14 y.o.)- page 463 6. Early Adulthood- pursuing education or training for career- may get married or start family 7. Middle Adulthood- job advancement, raising kids, volunteer, begin to prepare for retirement 8. Late Adulthood (about 60 y.o.)- begin to retire, pursue hobbies

12 Stages of Development Measuring Age:
1. Chronological- age measured in years- no control over number 2. Biological- age determined by how well various body parts are working- affected by diet, exercise, heredity 3. Social- age measured by your lifestyle and the connections you have with others- some delay responsibilities

13 STD’s STD- Sexually Transmitted Diseases- infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact- each year, ¼ of all new cases of STD’s appear among y.o.- 1 in 4 sexually active teens has an STD- page 493 STD’s are preventable Common STD’s: 1. Chlamydia- bacterial STD that may affect reproductive organs, urethra and anus- can be treated with antibiotics- silent disease because may have no symptoms- may have genital discharge and pain when urinating0 can lead to infertility

14 STD’s 2. Genital Herpes- viral STD that produces painful blisters on genital area- can occur with skin to skin contact without intercourse- can be passed to another person even without blisters present- no cure but medicine can lessen outbreak 3. Genital Warts- growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)- can be treated but no cure- most common STD in US- silent disease 4. Trichomoniasis- can be treated and cured- silent disease but some symptoms are discomfort during urination, genital discharge and irritation or itching in the genital area

15 STD’s 5. Gonorrhea- bacterial STD that affects mucous membranes particularly in the genital area- symptoms include thick, yellowish discharge, burning during urination- can be treated with antibiotics 6. Syphillis- bacterial STD can damage organs such as brain- can be treated or cured 7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)- general infection of the female reproductive organs- most females become infected as a result of contracting another STD

16 STD’s Best way to avoid getting an STD is to abstain from sexual activity Hang out with friends who have the same morals as you- when go on dates, ensure they know you are practicing abstinence If someone says, “If you really care for me, you would have sex with me.” You can say, “If you really care for me, you would respect my decision.”

17 HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)- virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) which is a deadly disease that interferes with the body’s natural ability to fight infection HIV affects/attacks the body’s T cells (helps the body fight of pathogens)- When the HIV virus attacks the T cell, it replaces the cells genetic information with it’s own an multiplies and eventually takes over and the immune system becomes weak- when body can longer fight pathogens, AIDS develops- one symptom that signals AIDS is the presence of opportunistic infections (infections that rarely occurs in a healthy person)- develops type of pneumonia that can cause death

18 HIV/AIDS Person can be a carrier of HIV without having AIDS- someone can have the disease for 10+ years without having symptoms- only way of knowing is to have a blood test- can happen to men, women and children HIV is spread through fluids (sperm, vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk)- just one incident of sexual activity with an infected person can spread the virus- sharing needles can also spread the disease- at one time, HIV was spread through donated blood; however, all donated blood is now tested

19 HIV/ AIDS HIV is not spread through: casual touching, breathing their air, mosquitos, swimming pools, sharing utensils, donating blood, hugging or shaking hands, using the same shower, bathtub or toilet There is no cure for HIV/AIDS- best weapon against it is to practice abstinence and have knowledge about it

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