Presentation on theme: "The female reproductive system produces ova."— Presentation transcript:
1 KEY CONCEPT Female and male reproductive organs fully develop during puberty.
2 The female reproductive system produces ova. There are two main functions of the female reproductive system.produce ova, or egg cellsprovide a place where a zygote developsuteruscervixrectumvaginaurethraurinary bladderpubic boneovaryfallopiantube
3 Estrogen has three main functions. develop female sexual characteristicsdevelop eggsprepare uterus for pregnancy
4 The male reproductive system produces sperm. There are two main functions of the male reproductive system.produce sperm cellsdeliver sperm to the female reproductive systemurinary bladdervas deferenspubic boneprostate glandpenisurethratestisscrotumepididymisbulbourethralglandrectumseminal vesicle
5 Testosterone has two main functions. developing male sexual characteristicsproducing sperm
6 KEY CONCEPT 34.2 Human reproductive processes depend on cycles of hormones.
7 Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles. potentialeggfirst polarbodysecond polarovum (egg)Meiosis ICompletedMeiosis IIonly afterspermentersFollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) regulate egg production.meiosis produces eggs and polar bodieseach egg has 23 chromosomesmeiosis is completed at fertilization
8 FSH, LH, and estrogen stimulate the release of eggs. follicle ruptures at ovulationegg travels into fallopian tuberuptured follicle becomes corpus luteumfallopiantubeegg cellegg releasedcorpus luteumuterine wallovaryfollicleuterus5 to 7 days to uterus
9 Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles. The menstrual cycle has three phases.flow phase: endometrium shedsfollicular phase: ovulation occursluteal phase: corpus luteum forms
10 The menstrual cycle stops at menopause. cycle continues until a woman’s mid-40’s or 50’sdecline in hormone levels make cycles irregulareventually, cycle stops altogether
11 Sperm production in the testes is controlled by hormones. Testosterone, FSH, and LH stimulate sperm production.one sex cell divides into four spermeach sperm has 23 chromosomespotentialsperm4 sperm cellsMeiosis IMeiosis II
12 Sperm cells fully mature in the epididymis. head contains acrosome midpiece contains ATPtail allows mobilityacrosomeheadmidpiecetailmitochondrianucleus with 23 chromosomes
13 Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell joins an egg cell. Sperm penetrates an egg.membrane keeps out other spermnucleus of sperm joins with eggzygote formed
14 Multiple zygotes can result from fertilization. identical twins from the same eggfraternal twins from two separate eggsInfertility makes reproduction difficult or impossible.
15 Sexually transmitted diseases affect fertility and overall health. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are passed from one person to another during sexual contact.bacterial STDs include chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrheaviral STDs include hepatitis B, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, and HIVHIV
16 Viral STDs can be treated, but there is no cure for these diseases. Bacterial STDs can be treated, and in many cases, cured with antibioticsA parasite causes trichomoniasis, which can affect fertility.Viral STDs can be treated, but there is no cure for these diseases.STDs attack reproductive organs.can cause infertilityuntreated, some can be fatalSTDs can be avoided by abstinence or by using a condom.
17 KEY CONCEPT 34.3 Development progresses in stages from zygote to fetus.
18 The zygote becomes a blastocyst and implants in the uterus. The fertilized egg implants into the uterus and is nourished by the placenta and umbilical cord.The zygote becomes a blastocyst and implants in the uterus.ectoderm develops into skin and nervous systemmesoderm develops into Internal tissues and organsendoderm develops into digestive organs and their liningblastocystuterine wallImplantation of blastocyst
19 The blastocyst becomes an embryo. Embryonic membranes protect and nourish the embryo.amniotic sac cushions embryo.placenta connects mother and embryo.umbilical cord connects embryo to placenta.placentaumbilical corduterusamniotic sac
20 A zygote develops into a fully formed fetus in about 38 weeks. Human pregnancies are divided into trimesters.1st trimester: body plan and early development
22 3rd trimester: all organs fully formed After about 38 weeks, fetus is ready to be born.
23 The mother affects the fetus, and pregnancy affects the mother. The fetus depends on the mother for all its nutrition.mother's diet must support fetal healthmother must avoid toxic chemicals
24 The mother’s health is affected by pregnancy in a number of ways. increase in Calories and body weightpregnancy hormones affecting homeostasisregular medical checkups needed
25 KEY CONCEPT 34.4 Physical development continues through adolescence and declines with age.
26 Birth occurs in three stages. Stage one of birth is the dilation of the cervix.contractions push cervix openif cervix dilates too little, C-section doneSTAGE 1As regular, strong contractions occur,the cervix dilates and the baby turns.
27 Stage two is the emergence of the baby. baby usually born headfirst oxytocin stimulates milk productionSTAGE 2The baby is pushed through the cervixand out of the vaginal canal.
28 Stage three is the expulsion of the placenta. placenta detaches from uterine wallcontractions helps control bleedingSTAGE 3Contractions continue, expelling theplacenta and helping to control bleeding.
29 Human growth and aging also occur in stages. Genetics, hormones, lifestyle, environment affect all stages.during infancy, growth is rapidduring childhood, motor and language skills develop
30 Genetics, hormones, lifestyle, environment affect all stages. during puberty, sexually maturity beginsduring adolescence, growth is rapid and the brain rewiredadulthood marks the peak of skills and independence
31 Aging is also affected by genetics, hormones, lifestyle, environment. Effects of aging can be reduced with good diet, exercise, and continued learning.Jerry Peel at age 1 1/2Jerry Peel at age 17Jerry Peel at age 71