Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Prenatal Development and Birth"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4: Prenatal Development and Birth 4.1 From Conception to Birth4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development4.3 Happy Birthday!
24.1 From Conception to Birth Period of the ZygotePeriod of the EmbryoPeriod of the Fetus
3Period of the ZygoteBegins when egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube.Period of rapid cell divisionEnds 2 weeks later when the zygote is implanted in the wall of the uterus4.1 From Conception to Birth
5Period of the Embryo From 3 to 8 weeks after conception Body parts are formed during this periodEmbryo rests in the amnion filled with amniotic fluidUmbilical cord joins embryo to placenta4.1 From Conception to Birth
7Period of the Fetus From 9 weeks after conception to birth Increase in size and systems begin to functionAge of viability: 22 to 28 weeks4.1 From Conception to Birth
84.2 Influences on Prenatal Development General Risk FactorsTeratogens: Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental HazardsHow Teratogens Influence Prenatal DevelopmentPrenatal Diagnosis and Treatment
9General Risk FactorsNutrition: adequate amount of food, protein, vitamins, & mineralsStress: decreases oxygen to fetus and weakens mother’s immune systemMother’s Age: neither too young, nor too old4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development
10Teratogens: Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental Hazards Many diseases pass through the placenta directly and attack the fetusPotentially dangerous drugs not limited to cocaine but include alcohol and caffeineEnvironmental hazards are treacherous because we’re often unaware of their presence4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development
11How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development Not universally harmfulHarm particular structures at a particular point in development in particular animals4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development
13Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment Diagnosis: ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling can detect physical deformities and genetic disordersTreatment: fetal medicine and genetic engineering are experimental4.2 Influences on Prenatal Development
154.3 Happy Birthday! Labor and Delivery Approaches to Childbirth Birth ComplicationsThe NewbornPostpartum Depression
16Labor and DeliveryStage 1: starts when the muscles of the uterus contract and ends when the cervix is fully enlarged (about 10 cm)Stage 2: baby is pushed down the birth canalStage 3: placenta is expelled4.3 Happy Birthday!
18Approaches to Childbirth Childbirth classes provide information about pregnancy and childbirthChildbirth classes teach pain control through deep breathing, imagery, and supportive coachingMothers who attend classes use less medication during labor and feel more positive about labor and birth4.3 Happy Birthday!
19Birth ComplicationsLack of oxygen (anoxia): Often leads to surgical removal of the fetus (C-section)Premature and Small-for-date infantsPrematurity is less serious than small-for-date4.3 Happy Birthday!
20The NewbornAssessing the newborn: Apgar to assess newborns’ health; NBAS for a comprehensive assessment of infants4 primary states: alert inactivity, waking activity, crying, sleepingHalf of newborns’ sleep is REMSleeping on one’s back may prevent SIDS4.3 Happy Birthday!
21Postpartum Depression Half of all new moms feel some irritation, resentment, and crying10-15% feel more severe postpartum depressionPostpartum depression affects warmth and enthusiasm of mothering4.3 Happy Birthday!