2Chapter 8 Cellular Energy Section 1: How Organisms Obtain EnergySection 2: PhotosynthesisSection 3: Cellular Respiration
3Transformation of Energy Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 How Organisms Obtain EnergyTransformation of EnergyEnergy is the ability to do work.Thermodynamics is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe.
4Laws of Thermodynamics Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 How Organisms Obtain EnergyLaws of ThermodynamicsFirst law—energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed.Second law—energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy.
5Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 How Organisms Obtain EnergyAutotrophs and HeterotrophsAutotrophs are organisms that make their own food.Heterotrophs are organisms that need to ingest food to obtain energy.
6All of the chemical reactions in a cell Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 How Organisms Obtain EnergyMetabolismAll of the chemical reactions in a cellPhotosynthesis—light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cellCellular respiration—organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell
7ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 How Organisms Obtain EnergyATP: The Unit of Cellular EnergyATP releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken, forming a molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate group.
8Overview of Photosynthesis Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisOverview of PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis occurs in two phases.Light-dependent reactionsLight-independent reactions
9Phase One: Light Reactions Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisPhase One: Light ReactionsThe absorption of light is the first step in photosynthesis.Chloroplasts capture light energy.
10Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisElectron TransportLight energy excites electrons in photosystem II and also causes a water molecule to split, releasing an electron into the electron transport system, H+ into the thylakoid space, and O2 as a waste product.
11Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisThe excited electrons move from photosystem II to an electron-acceptor molecule in the thylakoid membrane.The electron-acceptor molecule transfers the electrons along a series of electron-carriers to photosystem I.
12Photosystem I transfers the electrons to a protein called ferrodoxin. Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisPhotosystem I transfers the electrons to a protein called ferrodoxin.Ferrodoxin transfers the electrons to the electron carrier NADP+, forming the energy-storing molecule NADPH.Visualizing Electron Transport
13Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisPhase Two: The Calvin CycleIn the second phase of photosynthesis, called the Calvin cycle, energy is stored in organic molecules such as glucose.
14Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisSix CO2 molecules combine with six 5-carbon compounds to form twelve 3-carbon molecules called 3-PGA.The chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH is transferred to the 3-PGA molecules to form high-energy molecules called G3P.
15Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 PhotosynthesisTwo G3P molecules leave the cycle to be used for the production of glucose and other organic compounds.An enzyme called rubisco converts the remaining ten G3P molecules into 5-carbon molecules called RuBP.These molecules combine with new carbon dioxide molecules to continue the cycle.
17Overview of Cellular Respiration Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Cellular RespirationOverview of Cellular RespirationOrganisms obtain energy in a process called cellular respiration.The equation for cellular respiration is the opposite of the equation for photosynthesis.
18Cellular respiration occurs in two main parts. Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Cellular RespirationCellular respiration occurs in two main parts.GlycolysisAerobic respiration
19Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Cellular RespirationGlycolysisGlucose is broken down in the cytoplasm through the process of glycolysis.Two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH are formed for each molecule of glucose that is broken down.
20Glycolysis has a net result of two ATP and two pyruvate. Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Cellular RespirationKrebs CycleGlycolysis has a net result of two ATP and two pyruvate.Most of the energy from the glucose is still contained in the pyruvate.The series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide is called the Krebs cycle.
21Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Cellular RespirationThe net yield from the Krebs cycle is six CO2 molecules, two ATP, eight NADH, and two FADH2.
22Final step in the breakdown of glucose Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Cellular RespirationElectron TransportFinal step in the breakdown of glucosePoint at which ATP is producedProduces 24 ATP
23Anaerobic Respiration Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Cellular RespirationAnaerobic RespirationThe anaerobic pathway that follows glycolysisTwo main typesLactic acid fermentationAlcohol fermentationCellular Respiration
24Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Cellular EnergyChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
25Which statement describes the law of conservation of energy? Chapter 8Cellular EnergyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich statement describes the law ofconservation of energy?Energy cannot be converted or destroyed.Energy can be converted and destroyed.Energy can be converted but not destroyed.Energy can be destroyed but not converted.
26In which metabolic process are molecules Chapter 8Cellular EnergyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsIn which metabolic process are moleculesbroken down to produce carbon dioxide andwater?photosynthesiscellular respirationhomeostasisfermentation
27At the end of the Calvin cycle, where is energy stored? Chapter 8Cellular EnergyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsAt the end of the Calvin cycle, where is energystored?NADPHATPchloroplastglucose
28Which law of thermodynamics explains Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 Formative QuestionsWhich law of thermodynamics explainswhy the ladybug receives the least amountof usable energy?
29the first law of thermodynamics the second law of thermodynamics Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 Formative Questionsthe first law of thermodynamicsthe second law of thermodynamics
30All of the energy from the food you eat comes from the sun. Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 Formative QuestionsTrue or FalseAll of the energy from the food you eatcomes from the sun.
31Why is cellular respiration a catabolic pathway? Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 Formative QuestionsWhy is cellular respiration a catabolic pathway?Energy is used to form glucose andoxygen.Energy is converted from water tocarbon dioxide.Energy that is lost is converted tothermal energy.Energy is released by the breakdownof molecules.
32Why is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) such an Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.1 Formative QuestionsWhy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) such animportant biological molecule?It captures light energy from the sun.It is produced in anabolic pathways.It stores and releases chemical energy.It converts mechanical energy to thermalenergy.
33Where in the plant cell does photosynthesis take place? Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 Formative QuestionsWhere in the plant cell does photosynthesistake place?chloroplastsGolgi apparatusmitochondriavacuoles
34Which range of wavelengths is reflected by chlorophylls a and b? Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 Formative QuestionsWhich range of wavelengths is reflected bychlorophylls a and b?nmnmnm
35Which mechanism of photosynthesis uses Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 Formative QuestionsWhich mechanism of photosynthesis usesthe movement of hydrogen ions (H+) acrossa concentration gradient to synthesize ATP?absorptionchemiosmosiselectron transportC2 pathway
36How are the C4 pathway and the CAM pathway Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.2 Formative QuestionsHow are the C4 pathway and the CAM pathwayan adaptive strategy for some plants?They accelerate photosynthesis.They release more oxygen.They help the plant conserve water.They reduce the requirement for ATP.
37What is the overall purpose of cellular respiration? Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is the overall purpose of cellularrespiration?to make ATPto process H2Oto store glucoseto deliver oxygen
38Which represents the general sequence of cellular respiration? Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsWhich represents the general sequence ofcellular respiration?TCA cycle chemiosmosis glycolysisglycolysis Krebs cycle electron transportelectron absorption catalysisphosphorylationfermentationaerobic pathway anaerobic pathway
39Which stage of cellular respiration is the anaerobic process? Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsWhich stage of cellular respiration is theanaerobic process?glycolysisKrebs cycleelectron transport
40Which molecule generated by the Krebs cycle is a waste product? Chapter 8Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsWhich molecule generated by the Krebscycle is a waste product?CoACO2FADH2NADH
41Look at the following figure. Which part of the Chapter 8Cellular EnergyChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the following figure. Which part of thechloroplast is a sac-like membrane arranged instacks?granastromathylakoidsGolgi apparatus
42pyruvate is broken down into what compound? Chapter 8Cellular EnergyChapter Assessment QuestionsDuring the Krebs cycle,pyruvate is broken downinto what compound?H2OO2COCO2
43Look at the following figure. Which molecule is Chapter 8Cellular EnergyChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the following figure. Which molecule isreleased when ATP becomes ADP?phosphate groupwater moleculeribose sugarenergy cells
44A B Which metabolic process is photosynthesis? Chapter 8Cellular EnergyStandardized Test PracticeWhich metabolic process is photosynthesis?AB
45At the beginning of photosynthesis, which Chapter 8Cellular EnergyStandardized Test PracticeAt the beginning of photosynthesis, whichmolecule is split to produce oxygen (O2) asa waste product?CO2H2OC6H12O63-PGA
46Which molecule helps provide the energy that drives this cycle? Chapter 8Cellular EnergyStandardized Test PracticeWhich molecule helps provide the energy thatdrives this cycle?3-PGACO2NADPHrubisco
47Which product of the Calvin cycle is used for Chapter 8Cellular EnergyStandardized Test PracticeWhich product of the Calvin cycle is used forthe production of glucose and other organiccompounds?ADPCO2G3PNADP+
48What is the final step of cellular respiration? Chapter 8Cellular EnergyStandardized Test PracticeWhat is the final step of cellular respiration?O2 and H+ form H2O.Electrons and H2O generate ATP.C6H12O6 is broken down into CO2.NADH and FADH2 gain electrons.
49What prevents pyruvate from entering the Krebs Chapter 8Cellular EnergyStandardized Test PracticeWhat prevents pyruvate from entering the Krebscycle and instead results in this pathway?a buildup of CO2a lack of oxygenan excess ofglucosean increaseddemand for ATP
50Which is not a process that occurs in both Chapter 8Cellular EnergyStandardized Test PracticeWhich is not a process that occurs in bothcellular respiration and glycolysis?chemiosmosiselectron transportglycolysisproduction of G3P