2 The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP. Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.Starch moleculeGlucose molecule
3 Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions.Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed.ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.phosphate removed
4 Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP. Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP.not stored in large amountsup to 36 ATP from one glucose moleculetriphosphateadenosinediphosphatetri=3di=2
5 Fats store the most energy. 80 percent of the energy in your bodyabout 146 ATP from a triglycerideProteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.amino acids not usually needed for energyabout the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate
6 A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy. Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight.In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules.similar to photosynthesisuses chemical energy instead of light energy
7 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The equation for the overall process is:6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2SunlightC6H12O6granum (stack of thylakoids)thylakoidsunlight1 six-carbon sugar6H2O6CO26O2chloroplast1243energystroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)
8 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy.chloroplastleaf cellleafIn plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts.
9 Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts. 4.2 Overview of PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts.Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts.grana (thylakoids)stromachloroplaststromagrana (thylakoids)
10 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight.take place in thylakoidswater and sunlight are neededchlorophyll absorbs energyenergy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactionsoxygen is released
11 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The light-independent reactions make sugars.take place in stromaneeds carbon dioxide from atmosphereuse energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions
12 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail KEY CONCEPT Photosynthesis requires a series of chemical reactions.
13 The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy. 4.3 Photosynthesis in DetailThe first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy.The light-dependent reactions include groups of molecules called photosystems.
14 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail Photosystem II captures and transfers energy.chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons enter electron transport chainwater molecules are splitoxygen is released as wastehydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane
15 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules.chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons are used to make NADPHNADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions
16 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail The light-dependent reactions produce ATP.hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the thylakoid membraneATP synthase attached to the channel makes ATP
17 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail The second stage of photosynthesis uses energy from the first stage to make sugars.Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma and use CO2 molecules.
18 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycleenergy is added and carbon molecules are rearrangeda high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle
19 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugarremaining molecules stay in the cycle
20 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.
21 Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars. 4.4 Overview of Cellular RespirationCellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria.mitochondrionanimal cell
22 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration Glycolysis must take place first.anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)takes place in cytoplasmsplits glucose into two three-carbon moleculesproduces two ATP molecules
23 Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis. 4.4 Overview of Cellular RespirationCellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain.takes place in mitochondrial matrixbreaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysis6H O26CO6Omitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)inner membraneATPenergyenergy from glycolysis143andKrebs Cyclemakes a small amount of ATPreleases carbon dioxidetransfers energy-carrying molecules
24 energy from glycolysis 4.4 Overview of Cellular RespirationThe electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP.takes place in inner membraneenergy transferred to electron transport chainoxygen enters processATP produced6H O26CO6Omitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)inner membraneATPenergyenergy from glycolysis143andElectron Transportwater released as a waste product
25 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration The equation for the overall process is:C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2OThe reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.
26 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail KEY CONCEPT Cellular respiration is an aerobic process with two main stages.
27 Glycolysis is needed for cellular respiration. 4.5 Cellular Respiration in DetailGlycolysis is needed for cellular respiration.The products of glycolysis enter cellular respiration when oxygen is available.two ATP molecules are used to split glucosefour ATP molecules are producedtwo molecules of NADH producedtwo molecules of pyruvate produced
28 The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration. 4.5 Cellular Respiration in DetailThe Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration.Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle.carbon dioxide releasedNADH producedcoenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule
29 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.
30 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.NADH and FADH2 are madeintermediate molecule with CoA enters Krebs cyclecitric acid (six-carbon molecule) is formedcitric acid is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, and NADH is madefive-carbon molecule is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, NADH and ATP are madefour-carbon molecule is rearranged
31 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.high-energy electrons enter electron transport chainenergy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membranehydrogen ions flow through a channel in the membrane
32 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 38 molecules of ATP.ATP synthase produces ATPoxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ionswater is released as a waste product
33 4.6 FermentationKEY CONCEPT Fermentation allows the production of a small amount of ATP without oxygen.
34 Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.Fermentation is an anaerobic process.occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respirationdoes not produce ATP
35 4.6 FermentationFermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.NAD+ is recycled to glycolysisLactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate moleculespyruvate and NADH enter fermentationenergy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acidNADH is changed back into NAD+
36 Fermentation and its products are important in several ways. Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation.glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentationenergy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxideNADH is changed back into NAD+NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis
37 4.6 Fermentation Fermentation is used in food production. yogurt cheesebread