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Go to Section: ATP Adenosine triphosphate- the principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy. Consists of adenine, Ribose, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Go to Section: ATP Adenosine triphosphate- the principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy. Consists of adenine, Ribose, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Go to Section: ATP Adenosine triphosphate- the principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy. Consists of adenine, Ribose, and three phosphate groups. ADP- adenosine diphosphate, it looks like ATP but has two phosphates instead of three. When a cell has energy available it stores the energy by adding a phosphate to ADP.

2 Go to Section: AdenineRibose3 Phosphate groups Section 8-1 ATP

3 Go to Section: ADPATP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + PhosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Section 8-1 Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

4 Go to Section: ADPATP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + PhosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Section 8-1 Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

5 Go to Section: Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration- the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy (as ATP) Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP)

6 Go to Section: Glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport Fermentation (without oxygen) Alcohol or lactic acid Chemical Pathways Section 9-1

7 Go to Section: Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview Mitochondrion Section 9-1

8 Go to Section: Plant Cell Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Cell wall Cell Membrane Chloroplast Vacuole Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells

9 Go to Section: Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound. NADH holds electrons to be transferred to other molecules. By doing this it helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell.

10 Go to Section: Glucose To the electron transport chain Figure 9–3 Glycolysis Section Pyruvic acid

11 Go to Section: Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation-releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP without oxygen present. Alcoholic Fermentation- Yeasts and microorganisms form ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as waste. Lactic Acid Fermentation- pyruvic acid accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid.. It Regenerates NAD so that glycolysis can continue

12 Go to Section: Glucose Pyruvic acid Lactic acid Figure 9–4 Lactic Acid Fermentation Section 9-1

13 Go to Section: Flowchart Section 9-2 Glucose (C 6 H ) + Oxygen (0 2 ) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) + Water (H 2 O) Cellular Respiration

14 Go to Section: Aerobic Respiration Uses Oxygen and takes place in the mitochondria Krebs Cycle- 2 nd stage of cellular respiration that break pyruvic acid down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions. The 1 st compound formed is citric acid so Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle. Electron Transport Chain- also takes place in the mitochondria. It uses the high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP into ATP.

15 Go to Section: Citric Acid Production Figure 9–6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Mitochondrion

16 Go to Section: Figure 9–7 Electron Transport Chain Section 9-2 Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement ATP Production ATP synthase Channel Inner Membrane Matrix Intermembrane Space Mitochondrion

17 Go to Section: The Totals Krebs cycle and Electron Transport chain enable the cell to produce 34 more ATP molecules per glucose molecule. 18 times as much ATP can be generated from glucose in the presence of oxygen. So total amount is 36 ATP’s

18 Go to Section: Heterotroph or Autotroph Autotrophs- organisms such as plants that make their own food. Heterotroph- organisms like animals obtain energy food that they consume.

19 Go to Section: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy sugars and oxygen. 6H 2 O + 6CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

20 Go to Section: Light and Pigments Pigments- light absorbing molecules that plants use to gather the sun’s energy. Chlorophyll- the plants principal pigment. Two Types. Chlorophyll –a and Chlorophyll-b. Carotene- red and orange pigments that some plants contain.

21 Go to Section: Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b VBGYOR Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a Section 8-2 Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption

22 Go to Section: Chloroplast Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast Thylakoids-saclike photosynthetic membrane. Thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana(plural) or granum(singular). Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters known as photosystems. Photosystems- light collecting units of the chloroplast 2 types

23 Go to Section: Light Energy Chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 OSugars + O 2 Section 8-2 Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products

24 Go to Section: Chloroplast Light O2O2 Sugars CO 2 Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle NADPH ATP ADP + P NADP + Chloroplast Section 8-3 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

25 Go to Section: Light dependent reactions Light dependent reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes Light dependent reactions require energy from light to produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH. ATP Synthase- enzyme or protein that binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP.

26 Go to Section: Hydrogen Ion Movement Photosystem II Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma ATP synthase Electron Transport Chain Photosystem IATP Formation Chloroplast Section 8-3 Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions

27 Go to Section: Light independent reactions or The Calvin Cycle Takes place in the stroma. The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions and 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6 carbon sugar molecule. Plants use the glucose to make a polysaccharide called cellulose.

28 Go to Section: Chloroplast CO 2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Section 8-3 Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle

29 Go to Section: Photosynthesis includes of take place in takes place in uses to produce use Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle Thylakoid membranes StromaNADPH ATP Energy from sunlight ATPNADPHO2O2 Chloroplasts High-energy sugars Section 8-3 Concept Map

30 Video Contents Videos Click a hyperlink to choose a video. ATP Formation Photosynthesis Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2 Calvin Cycle

31 Video 1 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 1 ATP Formation

32 Video 2 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 2 Photosynthesis

33 Video 3 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 3 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1

34 Video 4 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 4 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2

35 Video 5 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 5 Calvin Cycle

36 Internet ATP activity Interactive test For links on Calvin cycle, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3082.www.SciLinks.org For links on photosynthesis, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3083.www.SciLinks.org Go Online

37 End of Custom Shows This slide is intentionally blank.


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