Presentation on theme: "ATP Adenosine triphosphate- the principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy. Consists of adenine, Ribose, and three phosphate."— Presentation transcript:
1ATPAdenosine triphosphate- the principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy. Consists of adenine, Ribose, and three phosphate groups. ADP- adenosine diphosphate, it looks like ATP but has two phosphates instead of three. When a cell has energy available it stores the energy by adding a phosphate to ADP.
3Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery Section 8-1ADPATPEnergyEnergyAdenosine diphosphate (ADP) + PhosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP)PartiallychargedbatteryFullychargedbattery
4Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery Section 8-1ADPATPEnergyEnergyAdenosine diphosphate (ADP) + PhosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP)PartiallychargedbatteryFullychargedbattery
5Cellular RespirationCellular Respiration- the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (as ATP) Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP)
6Fermentation (without oxygen) Chemical PathwaysSection 9-1GlucoseKrebs cycleElectron transportGlycolysisAlcohol or lactic acidFermentation (without oxygen)
7Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview Section 9-1MitochondrionElectrons carried in NADHElectrons carried in NADH and FADH2Pyruvic acidGlucoseElectron Transport ChainKrebs CycleGlycolysisMitochondrionCytoplasm
9GlycolysisGlycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound. NADH holds electrons to be transferred to other molecules. By doing this it helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell.
10To the electron transport chain Figure 9–3 GlycolysisSection 9-1Glucose2 Pyruvic acidTo the electron transport chain
11Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation-releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP without oxygen present. Alcoholic Fermentation- Yeasts and microorganisms form ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as waste. Lactic Acid Fermentation- pyruvic acid accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid.. It Regenerates NAD so that glycolysis can continue
13Electron Transport Chain FlowchartSection 9-2Cellular RespirationGlucose (C6H1206)+Oxygen (02)GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainCarbonDioxide(CO2)+Water(H2O)
14Aerobic RespirationUses Oxygen and takes place in the mitochondria Krebs Cycle- 2nd stage of cellular respiration that break pyruvic acid down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions. The 1st compound formed is citric acid so Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle. Electron Transport Chain- also takes place in the mitochondria . It uses the high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
15Figure 9–6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2Citric Acid ProductionMitochondrion
16Figure 9–7 Electron Transport Chain Section 9-2Electron TransportHydrogen Ion MovementChannelMitochondrionIntermembraneSpaceATP synthaseInnerMembraneMatrixATP Production
17The TotalsKrebs cycle and Electron Transport chain enable the cell to produce 34 more ATP molecules per glucose molecule. 18 times as much ATP can be generated from glucose in the presence of oxygen. So total amount is 36 ATP’s
18Heterotroph or Autotroph Autotrophs- organisms such as plants that make their own food. Heterotroph- organisms like animals obtain energy food that they consume.
19PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy sugars and oxygen. 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6+ 6O2
20Light and PigmentsPigments- light absorbing molecules that plants use to gather the sun’s energy. Chlorophyll- the plants principal pigment. Two Types. Chlorophyll –a and Chlorophyll-b. Carotene- red and orange pigments that some plants contain.
21Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption Section 8-2Absorption of Light byChlorophyll a and Chlorophyll bChlorophyll bChlorophyll aVBGYOR
22ChloroplastPhotosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast Thylakoids-saclike photosynthetic membrane. Thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana(plural) or granum(singular). Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters known as photosystems. Photosystems- light collecting units of the chloroplast 2 types
24Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Section 8-3LightO2SugarsCO2ChloroplastChloroplastNADP+ADP + PLight-DependentReactionsCalvinCycleATPNADPH
25Light dependent reactions Light dependent reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes Light dependent reactions require energy from light to produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH. ATP Synthase- enzyme or protein that binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP.
27Light independent reactions or The Calvin Cycle Takes place in the stroma. The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions and 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6 carbon sugar molecule. Plants use the glucose to make a polysaccharide called cellulose.
28Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle Section 8-3 CO2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input Chloroplast5-CarbonMoleculesRegenerated6-Carbon SugarProducedSugars and other compounds
29Concept Map Photosynthesis Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle Section 8-3PhotosynthesisincludesLight-dependentreactionsCalvin cycletakes place inusesusetake place inThylakoidmembranesStromaNADPHATPEnergy fromsunlightto produceofto produceATPNADPHO2ChloroplastsHigh-energysugars
30Click a hyperlink to choose a video. ATP Formation Photosynthesis VideosClick a hyperlink to choose a video.ATP FormationPhotosynthesisLight-Dependent Reactions, Part 1Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2Calvin CycleVideo Contents
31Click the image to play the video segment. ATP FormationClick the image to play the video segment.Video 1
32Click the image to play the video segment. PhotosynthesisClick the image to play the video segment.Video 2
33Click the image to play the video segment. Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1Click the image to play the video segment.Video 3
34Click the image to play the video segment. Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2Click the image to play the video segment.Video 4
35Click the image to play the video segment. Calvin CycleClick the image to play the video segment.Video 5
36Go Online ATP activity Interactive test For links on Calvin cycle, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3082.For links on photosynthesis, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3083.Internet
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