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Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 8 Cellular Energy Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy Section 2: Photosynthesis Section 3: Cellular Respiration.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 8 Cellular Energy Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy Section 2: Photosynthesis Section 3: Cellular Respiration."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 8 Cellular Energy Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy Section 2: Photosynthesis Section 3: Cellular Respiration

4 Transformation of Energy  Energy is the ability to do work. 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular Energy  Thermodynamics is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe. Chapter 8

5 Laws of Thermodynamics  First law—energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed. 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular Energy  Second law—energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy. Chapter 8

6 Autotrophs and Heterotrophs  Autotrophs are organisms that make their own food. 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular Energy  Heterotrophs are organisms that need to ingest food to obtain energy. Chapter 8

7 Metabolism  All of the chemical reactions in a cell 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular Energy  Photosynthesis—light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell  Cellular respiration—organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell Chapter 8

8 ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy  ATP releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken, forming a molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate group. 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Cellular Energy Chapter 8 ATP

9 Overview of Photosynthesis  Photosynthesis occurs in two phases. Cellular Energy  Light-dependent reactions  Light-independent reactions 8.2 Photosynthesis Chapter 8

10 Phase One: Light Reactions  The absorption of light is the first step in photosynthesis. Cellular Energy  Chloroplasts capture light energy. 8.2 Photosynthesis Chapter 8

11 Electron Transport  Light energy excites electrons in photosystem II and also causes a water molecule to split, releasing an electron into the electron transport system, H + into the thylakoid space, and O 2 as a waste product. Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis Chapter 8

12  The excited electrons move from photosystem II to an electron-acceptor molecule in the thylakoid membrane.  The electron-acceptor molecule transfers the electrons along a series of electron-carriers to photosystem I. Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis Chapter 8

13 Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis  Photosystem I transfers the electrons to a protein called ferrodoxin.  Ferrodoxin transfers the electrons to the electron carrier NADP +, forming the energy- storing molecule NADPH. Chapter 8

14 Cellular Energy Chapter 8

15 Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle  In the second phase of photosynthesis, called the Calvin cycle, energy is stored in organic molecules such as glucose. Chapter 8

16 Cellular Energy Chapter 8

17 Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis  Six CO 2 molecules combine with six 5-carbon compounds to form twelve 3-carbon molecules called 3-PGA.  The chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH is transferred to the 3-PGA molecules to form high-energy molecules called G3P. Chapter 8

18 Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis  Two G3P molecules leave the cycle to be used for the production of glucose and other organic compounds.  An enzyme called rubisco converts the remaining ten G3P molecules into 5-carbon molecules called RuBP.  These molecules combine with new carbon dioxide molecules to continue the cycle. Chapter 8

19 Cellular Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis Alternative Pathways  C 4 plants  CAM plants Chapter 8

20 Overview of Cellular Respiration  Organisms obtain energy in a process called cellular respiration. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  The equation for cellular respiration is the opposite of the equation for photosynthesis. Chapter 8

21 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  Cellular respiration occurs in two main parts.  Glycolysis  Aerobic respiration Chapter 8

22 Glycolysis  Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm through the process of glycolysis. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  Two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH are formed for each molecule of glucose that is broken down. Chapter 8

23 Krebs Cycle  Glycolysis has a net result of two ATP and two pyruvate. 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  Most of the energy from the glucose is still contained in the pyruvate.  The series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide is called the Krebs cycle. Chapter 8

24 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy  The net yield from the Krebs cycle is six CO 2 molecules, two ATP, eight NADH, and two FADH 2. Chapter 8

25 Cellular Energy Chapter 8

26 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy Electron Transport  Final step in the breakdown of glucose  Point at which ATP is produced  Produces 24 ATP Chapter 8

27 8.3 Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy Anaerobic Respiration  The anaerobic pathway that follows glycolysis  Two main types  Lactic acid fermentation  Alcohol fermentation Cellular Respiration Chapter 8

28 Cellular Energy Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature. Chapter 8

29 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 1 A. Energy cannot be converted or destroyed. B. Energy can be converted and destroyed. C. Energy can be converted but not destroyed. D. Energy can be destroyed but not converted. Which statement describes the law of conservation of energy? Cellular Energy Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 8

30 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 2 Cellular Energy Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 8 A. photosynthesis B. cellular respiration C. homeostasis D. fermentation In which metabolic process are molecules broken down to produce carbon dioxide and water?

31 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 3 Cellular Energy Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 8 A. NADPH B. ATP C. chloroplast D. glucose At the end of the Calvin cycle, where is energy stored?

32 1.A 2.B FQ 1 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Which law of thermodynamics explains why the ladybug receives the least amount of usable energy? A. the first law of thermodynamics B. the second law of thermodynamics 8.1 Formative Questions

33 1.A 2.B FQ 2 Cellular Energy Chapter Formative Questions All of the energy from the food you eat comes from the sun. A. true B. false

34 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 3 Cellular Energy Chapter Formative Questions Why is cellular respiration a catabolic pathway? A. Energy is used to form glucose and oxygen. B. Energy is converted from water to carbon dioxide. C. Energy that is lost is converted to thermal energy. D. Energy is released by the breakdown of molecules.

35 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 4 Cellular Energy Chapter Formative Questions A. It captures light energy from the sun. B. It is produced in anabolic pathways. C. It stores and releases chemical energy. D. It converts mechanical energy to thermal energy. Why is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) such an important biological molecule?

36 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 5 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 A. chloroplasts B. Golgi apparatus C. mitochondria D. vacuoles Where in the plant cell does photosynthesis take place? 8.2 Formative Questions

37 1. A 2. B 3. C FQ 6 Cellular Energy Chapter Formative Questions A nm B nm C nm Which range of wavelengths is reflected by chlorophylls a and b?

38 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 7 Cellular Energy Chapter Formative Questions A. absorption B. chemiosmosis C. electron transport D. C 2 pathway Which mechanism of photosynthesis uses the movement of hydrogen ions (H + ) across a concentration gradient to synthesize ATP?

39 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 8 Cellular Energy Chapter Formative Questions A. They accelerate photosynthesis. B. They release more oxygen. C. They help the plant conserve water. D. They reduce the requirement for ATP. How are the C 4 pathway and the CAM pathway an adaptive strategy for some plants?

40 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 9 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 A. to make ATP B. to process H 2 O C. to store glucose D. to deliver oxygen What is the overall purpose of cellular respiration? 8.3 Formative Questions

41 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 10 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Which represents the general sequence of cellular respiration? A. TCA cycle  chemiosmosis  glycolysis B. glycolysis  Krebs cycle  electron transport C. electron absorption  catalysis  phosphorylation D. aerobic pathway  anaerobic pathway  fermentation 8.3 Formative Questions

42 1. A 2. B 3. C FQ 11 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 A. glycolysis B. Krebs cycle C. electron transport Which stage of cellular respiration is the anaerobic process? 8.3 Formative Questions

43 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D FQ 12 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 A. CoA B. CO 2 C. FADH 2 D. NADH Which molecule generated by the Krebs cycle is a waste product? 8.3 Formative Questions

44 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D CAQ 1 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Look at the following figure. Which part of the chloroplast is a sac-like membrane arranged in stacks? A. grana B. stroma C. thylakoids D. Golgi apparatus Chapter Assessment Questions

45 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D CAQ 2 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Chapter Assessment Questions During the Krebs cycle, pyruvate is broken down into what compound? A. H 2 O B. O 2 C. CO D. CO 2

46 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D CAQ 3 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Chapter Assessment Questions Look at the following figure. Which molecule is released when ATP becomes ADP? A. phosphate group B. water molecule C. ribose sugar D. energy cells

47 1. A 2. B STP 1 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Which metabolic process is photosynthesis? A B Standardized Test Practice

48 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D STP 2 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Standardized Test Practice At the beginning of photosynthesis, which molecule is split to produce oxygen (O 2 ) as a waste product? A. CO 2 B. H 2 O C. C 6 H 12 O 6 D. 3-PGA

49 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D STP 3 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Standardized Test Practice Which molecule helps provide the energy that drives this cycle? A. 3-PGA B. CO 2 C. NADPH D. rubisco

50 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D STP 4 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Standardized Test Practice Which product of the Calvin cycle is used for the production of glucose and other organic compounds? A. ADP B. CO 2 C. G3P D. NADP +

51 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D STP 5 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Standardized Test Practice What is the final step of cellular respiration? A. O 2 and H + form H 2 O. B. Electrons and H 2 O generate ATP. C. C 6 H 12 O6 is broken down into CO 2. D. NADH and FADH 2 gain electrons.

52 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D STP 6 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Standardized Test Practice What prevents pyruvate from entering the Krebs cycle and instead results in this pathway? A. a buildup of CO 2 B. a lack of oxygen C. an excess of glucose D. an increased demand for ATP

53 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D STP 7 Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Standardized Test Practice Which is not a process that occurs in both cellular respiration and glycolysis? A. chemiosmosis B. electron transport C. glycolysis D. production of G3P

54 Cellular Energy Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 8

55 Cellular Energy Image Bank Chapter 8

56 energy thermodynamics metabolism Photosynthesis cellular respiration adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Vocabulary Section 1

57 thylakoid granum stroma pigment NADP + Calvin cycle rubisco Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Vocabulary Section 2

58 anaerobic process aerobic respiration aerobic process glycolysis Krebs cycle fermentation Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Vocabulary Section 3

59 Cellular Energy  ATP ATP  The Calvin Cycle The Calvin Cycle  Visualizing Electron Transport Visualizing Electron Transport  The Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) The Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Animation Chapter 8

60 Cellular Energy Chapter 8

61 Cellular Energy Chapter 8

62 Cellular Energy Chapter 8


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