What is the function of chloroplasts? Chloroplast Chloroplasts –Plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts. –Chloroplasts capture __________ from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called __________________.
Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are surrounded by two membranes. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment _______________________.
8-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview
The key cellular process identified with energy production is ________________. Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates and ________. –What is the overall equation for photosynthesis? The equation for photosynthesis is: ______________ ________________ carbon dioxide + water sugars + oxygen
The Photosynthesis Equation –Photosynthesis uses the __________ of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen.
The Photosynthesis Equation O2O2 CO 2 + H 2 0 Sugar ADP NADP + Light-Dependent Reactions (thylakoids) H2OH2O ATP NADPH Calvin Cycle (stroma) Light energy Photosynthesis is a series of reactions that uses light energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen.
6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 ______________ ___________ Energy
Light and Pigments What is the role of light and chlorophyll in photosynthesis? –Light and Pigments –How do plants capture the energy of sunlight? In addition to water and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll. Plants gather the sun's energy with light-absorbing molecules called _____________________. The main pigment in plants is ____________________. There are two main types of chlorophyll: –chlorophyll a –chlorophyll b
Light and Pigments Chlorophyll absorbs light well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum. Estimated Absorption (%) Wavelength (nm)
Light and Pigments Chlorophyll does not absorb light in the _____________region of the spectrum. Green light is reflected by leaves, which is why plants look green. Estimated Absorption (%) Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a Wavelength (nm)
Photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll. In the graph above, notice how chlorophyll a absorbs light mostly in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum, whereas chlorophyll b absorbs light in the blue and red regions of the visible spectrum.
Light and Pigments –_______________ is a form of energy, so any compound that absorbs light also absorbs energy from that light. –When chlorophyll absorbs light, much of the energy is transferred directly to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule, raising the energy levels of these electrons. –These high-energy __________________ are what make photosynthesis work.
8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis
Where are you Mr. Chloroplast?
Inside a Chloroplast In plants, __________________ takes place inside _________________. Plant Plant cells Chloroplast
Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplasts contain _________________— saclike photosynthetic membranes. Chloroplast Single thylakoid
Inside a Chloroplast Thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as ___________. A singular stack is called a _______. Granum Chloroplast
Inside a Chloroplast Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters called ________________________, which are the light- collecting units of the chloroplast. Chloroplast Photosystems
Inside a Chloroplast The reactions of photosystems include: the light- dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions, or ____________________. The light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes. The Calvin cycle takes place in the ________________, which is the region outside the thylakoid membranes.
Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplast Light H2OH2O O2O2 CO 2 Sugars NADP + ADP + P Calvin Cycle Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle The process of photosynthesis includes the light-dependent reactions as well as the Calvin cycle.
What does the cell do when it has the energy it needs to function?
1g. Know the role the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.
Where are you Ms. Mitochondria?
What is the function of the mitochondria? Mitochondrion Mitochondria –Nearly all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria. –Mitochondria _______________ the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
Mitochondria Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes—an outer membrane and an inner membrane. The inner membrane is folded up inside the organelle.
9-1 Chemical Pathways ______________ serves as a source of raw materials for the cells in the body and as a source of energy. Animal Plant Animal Cells Plant Cells Mitochondrion
Both plant and animal cells carry out the final stages of ________________ in the mitochondria. Animal Cells Plant Cells Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane Matrix
Chemical Energy and Food One gram of the sugar glucose (______________), when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy. A _________________ is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. Cells don't “burn” glucose. Instead, they gradually release the energy from glucose and other food compounds. This process begins with a pathway called __________________. Glycolysis releases a small amount of energy.
Overview of Cellular Respiration If oxygen is present, glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain make up a process called ______________________________.
Overview of Cellular Respiration Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis
What is cellular respiration? Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down _______________ and other __________ molecules in the presence of oxygen. –The equation for cellular respiration is: –6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy –oxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + Energy Each of the three stages of cellular respiration captures some of the chemical energy available in food molecules and uses it to produce _________.
Overview of Cellular Respiration Glycolysis takes place in the ________________. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place in the mitochondria. Cytoplasm Mitochondrion Glycolysis
What happens during the process of glycolysis? –Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a ___-carbon compound. –The Advantages of Glycolysis The process of glycolysis is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ATP molecules in a few milliseconds. Glycolysis does not require _____________.
Fermentation When oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by a different pathway. The combined process of this pathway and glycolysis is called fermentation. _____________________ releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen. During fermentation, cells convert NADH to NAD + by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid. This action converts NADH back into NAD +, and allows glycolysis to continue producing a steady supply of ATP. Fermentation does not require oxygen—it is an _________________ process.
Fermentation What are the two main types of fermentation? –The two main types of fermentation are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation.
Fermentation –__________________ Fermentation Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes. The equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis is: pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO 2 + NAD + –__________________ Fermentation In many cells, pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid. This type of fermentation is called lactic acid fermentation. It regenerates NAD + so that glycolysis can continue.
Cellular Respiration ________________________
ATP in a Molecule _____________ is essential to _______. All living organisms must: –Produce energy from environment –Store energy for future use. –Use energy in a controlled manner –Examples: _______ transport, cell ______________, movement
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Name of energy molecule Composed of an adenosine molecule w/ 3 phosphate groups attached Energy is stored in the chemical bonds –Break a bond = _______________ energy –Form a bond = ______________ energy
Energy Compare energy to building blocks The more phosphate groups, the more stored up energy 1.Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) 2.Adenosine diphosphate (______) 3.Adenosine triphosphate (_____) The third phosphate group wants to break away so bad, when it does a great deal of energy is _________________. Some cell functions don’t need ATP to run off of, they can run off of ADP energy instead.
What is energy used for? To maintain ________________ Making new molecules Mobility Movement of molecules through out the system
The Totals Glycolysis produces just __ ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. The complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration, including glycolysis, results in the production of ________ molecules of ATP.
Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration The energy flows in photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place in opposite directions.