3What is the function of chloroplasts? Plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts.Chloroplasts capture __________ from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called __________________.
4Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are surrounded by two membranes. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment _______________________.
68-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview The key cellular process identified with energy production is ________________.Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates and ________.What is the overall equation for photosynthesis?The equation for photosynthesis is:______________ ________________carbon dioxide + water sugars + oxygen
7The Photosynthesis Equation Photosynthesis uses the __________ of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen.
8The Photosynthesis Equation Light energyH2OLight-Dependent Reactions (thylakoids)O2ADP NADP+ATP NADPHPhotosynthesis is a series of reactions that uses light energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen.CO2 + H20SugarCalvin Cycle (stroma)Photosynthesis is a series of reactions that uses light energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen.
10Light and PigmentsWhat is the role of light and chlorophyll in photosynthesis?Light and PigmentsHow do plants capture the energy of sunlight?In addition to water and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll.Plants gather the sun's energy with light-absorbing molecules called _____________________.The main pigment in plants is ____________________.There are two main types of chlorophyll:chlorophyll achlorophyll b
11Light and PigmentsChlorophyll absorbs light well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum.10080604020Estimated Absorption (%)Photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll. In the graph above, notice how chlorophyll a absorbs light mostly in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum, whereas chlorophyll b absorbs light in the blue and red regions of the visible spectrum.Wavelength (nm)
12Light and PigmentsChlorophyll does not absorb light in the _____________region of the spectrum. Green light is reflected by leaves, which is why plants look green.10080604020Chlorophyll bEstimated Absorption (%)Chlorophyll aPhotosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll. In the graph above, notice how chlorophyll a absorbs light mostly in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum, whereas chlorophyll b absorbs light in the blue and red regions of the visible spectrum.Wavelength (nm)
13Photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll Photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll. In the graph above, notice how chlorophyll a absorbs light mostly in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum, whereas chlorophyll b absorbs light in the blue and red regions of the visible spectrum.
14Light and Pigments_______________ is a form of energy, so any compound that absorbs light also absorbs energy from that light.When chlorophyll absorbs light, much of the energy is transferred directly to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule, raising the energy levels of these electrons.These high-energy __________________ are what make photosynthesis work.
17Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, __________________ takes place inside _________________.PlantChloroplastPlant cells
18Inside a ChloroplastChloroplasts contain _________________—saclike photosynthetic membranes.SinglethylakoidChloroplast
19Inside a ChloroplastThylakoids are arranged in stacks known as ___________. A singular stack is called a _______.GranumChloroplast
20Inside a ChloroplastProteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters called ________________________, which are the light-collecting units of the chloroplast.PhotosystemsChloroplast
21Inside a ChloroplastThe reactions of photosystems include: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions, or ____________________.The light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes.The Calvin cycle takes place in the ________________, which is the region outside the thylakoid membranes.
22Light- dependent reactions Inside a ChloroplastH2OCO2LightNADP+ADP + PLight- dependent reactionsCalvin CycleCalvin cycleThe process of photosynthesis includes the light-dependent reactions as well as the Calvin cycle.ChloroplastO2SugarsThe process of photosynthesis includes the light-dependent reactions as well as the Calvin cycle.
28What is the function of the mitochondria? Nearly all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria.Mitochondria _______________ the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.Mitochondrion
29Mitochondria Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes—an outer membrane and an inner membrane.The inner membrane is folded up inside the organelle.
33Chemical Energy and Food One gram of the sugar glucose (______________), when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy.A _________________ is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.Cells don't “burn” glucose. Instead, they gradually release the energy from glucose and other food compounds.This process begins with a pathway called __________________.Glycolysis releases a small amount of energy.
34Overview of Cellular Respiration If oxygen is present, glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain make up a process called ______________________________.
35Overview of Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADHElectrons carriedin NADH andFADH2Pyruvic acidGlucoseGlycolysisCytoplasmCellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place inside the mitochondria.Mitochondrion
36What is cellular respiration? Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down _______________ and other __________ molecules in the presence of oxygen.The equation for cellular respiration is:6O2 + C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energyoxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + EnergyEach of the three stages of cellular respiration captures some of the chemical energy available in food molecules and uses it to produce _________.
37Overview of Cellular Respiration Glycolysis takes place in the ________________. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place in the mitochondria.GlycolysisCellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place inside the mitochondria.CytoplasmMitochondrion
38Glycolysis What happens during the process of glycolysis? Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a ___-carbon compound.The Advantages of GlycolysisThe process of glycolysis is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ATP molecules in a few milliseconds.Glycolysis does not require _____________.
39Fermentation Fermentation When oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by a different pathway. The combined process of this pathway and glycolysis is called fermentation._____________________ releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.During fermentation, cells convert NADH to NAD+ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid.This action converts NADH back into NAD+, and allows glycolysis to continue producing a steady supply of ATP.Fermentation does not require oxygen—it is an _________________ process.
40Fermentation What are the two main types of fermentation? The two main types of fermentation are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation.
41Fermentation __________________ Fermentation Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes.The equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis is:pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO2 + NAD+__________________ FermentationIn many cells, pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid.This type of fermentation is called lactic acid fermentation. It regenerates NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue.
43ATP in a Molecule _____________ is essential to _______. All living organisms must:Produce energy from environmentStore energy for future use.Use energy in a controlled mannerExamples: _______ transport, cell ______________, movement
44Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Name of energy moleculeComposed of an adenosine molecule w/ phosphate groups attachedEnergy is stored in the chemical bondsBreak a bond = _______________ energyForm a bond = ______________ energy
45Energy Compare energy to building blocks The more phosphate groups, the more stored up energyAdenosine monophosphate (AMP)Adenosine diphosphate (______)Adenosine triphosphate (_____)The third phosphate group wants to break away so bad, when it does a great deal of energy is _________________.Some cell functions don’t need ATP to run off of, they can run off of ADP energy instead.
46What is energy used for? To maintain ________________ Making new moleculesMobilityMovement of molecules through out the system
48The TotalsThe TotalsGlycolysis produces just __ ATP molecules per molecule of glucose.The complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration, including glycolysis, results in the production of ________ molecules of ATP.
49Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration The energy flows in photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place in opposite directions.