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Parts of a Cell.  zafJKbMPA8.

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Presentation on theme: "Parts of a Cell.  zafJKbMPA8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parts of a Cell

2  zafJKbMPA8

3 Cell Wall  A rigid structure that gives support to a cell  Found in plant cells, algae, fungus and prokaryotes  Plant and algae cells have cell walls made of cellulose  Fungus have cell walls made of chitin

4 Cell Membrane  All cells have a cell membrane  Cell membrane is a protective barrier that encloses a cell. It separates the cell’s contents from the cell’s environment  Outermost structure of a cell, unless there is a cell wall.  Contains proteins, lipids, and phospholipids

5 Cell membrane cont’d  Some of the proteins and lipids control the movement of materials into and out of the cell.  Nutrients and water move into the cell, and wastes move out of the cell, through the protein passageways.

6 Cytoskeleton  A web of proteins in the cytoplasm. Acts as both a muscle and a skeleton.  Keeps the cell’s membranes from collapsing.  Also helps some cells move.  Made of 3 types of protein. One protein is a hollow tube, the other two are long, stringy fibers

7 Nucleus  Large organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell’s DNA  Covered by two membranes. Materials cross this double membrane by passing through pores.  Many cells have a dark area in the nucleus called the nucleolus – which is where a cell begins to make its ribosomes.

8 Ribosomes  Organelle that makes proteins.  Smallest of all organelles  More ribosomes in a cell than any other organelle.  Some float freely in cytoplasm, others are attached.  Do not have a membrane.

9 Endoplasmic Reticulum  A system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made.  Contains many tubes and passageways, which substances move through to different places in the cell  2 kinds of endoplasmic Reticulum  Rough ER  Smooth ER

10 Rough ER and Smooth ER Rough ER  Covered in ribosomes  Usually found near the nucleus  The ribosomes make the proteins that are sent through the ER to other parts of the cell Smooth ER  Does not have ribosomes  Makes lipids and breaks down toxic materials that could damage the cell

11 Mitochondria  Main power source of the cell  Covered by 2 membranes  Breaks down sugar to produce energy  The energy released by mitochondria is stored in a substance called ATP.  The cell then uses the ATP to do work.  Most ATP is made in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

12 Chloroplasts  Organelles in PLANT AND ALGAE cells in which photosynthesis takes place  Has 2 membranes and make their own DNA  They are green because they contain chlorophyll, which is found inside the inner membrane of a chloroplast.  Chlorophyll traps the energy of sunlight, which is used to make sugar.  The sugar produces is then used by mitochondria to make ATP

13 Golgi Complex  Organelle that packages and distributes proteins  Looks like smooth ER  Lipids and proteins from the ER are delivered to the Golgi Complex. Then the lipids and proteins may be modified to do different jobs.  The final product is enclosed in a piece of the GC’s membrane.  This membrane pinches off to forma small bubble, which transports the contents to other parts of the cell

14 Vesicles  Small sac that surrounds materials to be moved into or out of a cell, or within a cell  The small part of the Golgi complex that pinches off is a vesicle  All eukaryotic cells have vesicles  Vesicles carry new protein from the ER to the Golgi Complex  Vesicles distribute material from the Golgi Complex to other parts of the cell

15 Types of Vesicles Lysosomes  Responsible for digestion inside a cell  Destroys damaged organelles, gets rid of waste materials, and protects cell from foreign invaders Vacuoles  Some vacuoles act like lysosomes, helping with digestion within the cell.  Plants have large central vacuole that is full of water and helps support the cell

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