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Section 3: Cell Organelles The Nucleus: Eukaryotic cells (plant and animal cells) have a nucleus It is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 3: Cell Organelles The Nucleus: Eukaryotic cells (plant and animal cells) have a nucleus It is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 3: Cell Organelles The Nucleus: Eukaryotic cells (plant and animal cells) have a nucleus It is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope Holes in the nucleus called nuclear pores allow ribosomes to pass through and get out to the cell. DNA is contained in the nucleus which contain hereditary information

2 Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Proteins are made on ribosomes that are on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: smooth and rough, smooth do not have ribosomes, rough do Smooth endoplasmic reticulum have various functions such as making lipids and breaking down toxic substances

3 Packaging and distribution of proteins The golgi apparatus is a set of flattened, membrane bound sacs that serve as the packaging and distribution center of the cell Proteins received from the ER travel to the golgi apparatus where they are modified by enzymes, then packaged and exported from the cell in vescicles Production, packaging, and distribution of proteins is starts in the rough ER, goes through the golgi apparatus, to the outside of the cell with the assistance of vesicles and lysosomes

4 mitochondria An organelle that harvests energy from organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, to make ATP which can be used by the cell to make energy. See p. 65 The mitochondria has two membranes, inner and outer, the inner membrane is intricately folded Cells with a high energy requirement, such as muscle cells, may contain thousands of mitochondria Mitochondria have their own DNA and can make their own proteins which lends evidence that the first life on Earth were related to mitochondria

5 Plant cells In addition to the organelles previously discussed, plant cells have: A cell wall, composed of proteins and carbohydrates such as cellulose, it helps maintain and protect the cell Chloroplasts, which use light energy to make carbohydrates during photosynthesis Central vacuole, which is a large membrane- bound space which holds water and nutrients as well as wastes. When full it makes the cell rigid


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