3Life is Cellular How did the Cell Theory develop? Cell Theory Guided Reading activityKnow the contributions of the following scientists:Robert Hooke (1665)Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674)Matthias Schleiden (1838)Theodor Schwann (1839)Rudolph Virchow (1855)Janet Plowe (1931)Lynn Margulis (1970)
4Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Use my website to determine the major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
5Cell StructuresUse the webquest on animal and plant cell organelles and their functions as notes for this section.Go to my website, click on links, then click on “cells alive!”Or go to for more information!
6The Compound Microscope Review the microscope lab activity as notes for this section!Know the parts of the microscope and be able to accurately label a microscope diagram!Know how to make a wet mount slide!
7Cellular Diversity Protists: Animal and Plant Cells: Webquest on “What are Protists?”Protista lab activityAnimal and Plant Cells:Observing Animal and Plant Cells lab activity
8Protist Lab Video Clips Paramecium:Euglena:Amoeba:
9Levels of Organization in Multicellular Organisms Use the Levels of Organization webquest as notes for this section.
10Structure and Function 20 minute research activity:Choose a cell type and research how it’s structure helps it function.
11Cells performing the same function often are similar in shape Question: “How does the cell shape affect it’s function/allow it to function?”Choose from one of these cell types:NeuronRed Blood CellCheek Epithelial CellProduct Ideas:PowerPoint, Poster, graphic organizer, song, interpretive dance, model, acrostic poem, concept map
18Homeostasis in the Human Body Use the Homeostasis in the Human Body Webquest as notes for this section.
19Structure and Function “Fluid Mosaic Model” The Cell MembraneStructure and Function“Fluid Mosaic Model”
20The Cell Membrane Regulates what enters and leaves Provides protection and supportMade up of:Phospholipids (“lipid bilayer”)Integral and Peripheral ProteinsCarbohydrate chains (glycoproteins)Cholesterol
22Where are they found? Found in: Nucleus Cell membrane Golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulumlysosomesmitochondria(basically any membrane bound organelle!)
23Structure Lipid bilayer is made of the following: 2 types of proteins: Integral proteinsPeripheral proteins3 types of lipids:Membrane PhospholipidsMembrane glycolipidsCholesterol
24Integral proteins Transmembrane proteins (or integral proteins) Amphipathic = hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
25Peripheral proteins Peripheral proteins linked at the cytoplasmic surface (by attachment to a fatty acid chain)linked at the external cell surface (attached by an oligosaccharide)may be bound to other membrane proteins
26Membrane Phospholipids These have a polar head group and two hydrocarbon tailsIt is connected by glycerol to two fatty acid tailsOne of the tails is a straight chain fatty acid (saturated). The other has a kink in the tail (unsaturated).
29Membrane glycolipids Glycolipids are also a constituent of membranes. These components of the membrane may be protective, insulators, and sites of receptor binding.
30CholesterolThe amount of cholesterol may vary with the type of membrane.Plasma membranes have nearly one cholesterol per phospholipid molecule.Other membranes (like those around bacteria) have no cholesterol
31Cholesterol (continued) Function:This makes the lipid bilayer less deformableWithout cholesterol (such as in a bacterium) a cell would need a cell wall.Also keeps the cell membrane from becoming too stiff.
32Fluid Mosaic ModelBased on what you know about the structure and function of the cell membrane what does the fluid mosaic model mean?
33Diffusion, Osmosis, and Active Transport Molecular Workbench Activity Complete this online and use your analysis packets as additional notes.We will be completing this in class!
34Movement Through the Membrane Materials can move through the membrane by:DiffusionOsmosisFacilitated DiffusionActive TransportProtein PumpsEndocytosisExocytosisNO ENERGY (ATP) REQUIRED[high] [low]ENERGY (ATP) REQUIRED[low] [high]
35Diffusion Requires no energy (ATP) Moves from an area of High concentration low concentration until dynamic equilibrium is reached.Dynamic equilibrium activity
36Osmosis A type of diffusion (no energy needed) Allows water molecules to pass easily through the selectively permeable membrane.Solution = solute + solventSolute = sugar (or another dissolved substance)…CANNOT go through the membraneSolvent = water…CAN go through the membrane
37Osmosis ONLY water moves The solute stays put on one side or the other Water moves back and forth according to the concentration of water on each side of the membrane
38Osmotic Pressure Isotonic solutions Hypotonic solutions The 2 solutions have equal concentrations of solute and solvent.Hypotonic solutionsOne solution has less solute and more water compared to the other solution.Hypertonic solutionsOne solution has more solute and less water compared to the other solution.
39What would happen? What would happen if… You placed a selectively permeable membrane “bag” with a hypotonic solution into a beaker with a hypertonic solution?Which way would the water flow?What would happen to the bag?What would happen to the beaker?How do you know?How could you test this?
40Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion with the help of transport proteinsNo energy required
41Active Transport Cell uses energy Actively moves molecules to where they are neededMovement from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration3 MAIN TYPES:Protein pumpsEndocytosis (BULK TRANSPORT)Exocytosis (BULK TRANSPORT)
42Types of Active Transport 1. Protein Pumps -transport proteins that require energy to do workExample: Sodium / Potassium Pumps are important in nerve responses.Protein changes shape to move molecules: this requires energy!
43Types of Active Transport 2. Endocytosis: taking bulky material into a cellUses energyCell membrane in-folds around food particle“cell eating”Forms food vacuole & digests foodThis is how white blood cells eat bacteria!
44Types of Active Transport 3. Exocytosis: Forces material out of cell in bulkmembrane surrounding the material fuses with cell membraneCell changes shape – requires energyEX: Hormones or wastes released from cell
46Energy and Life Energy = ability to do work Source of energy on Earth = sunAutotrophs use light energy from the sun (or other sources) to make food.Heterotrophs obtain energy from foods consumed.Energy comes in many formsLight, heat, and electricity
47ATP “like a fully charged battery” One of the principle chemical compounds that is used to store energyAdenosine triphosphate (ATP)
48ADP “like a ½ charged battery” When energy is released from ATP converts to ADP and a phosphate group
50Using Biochemical Energy Cells use this energy for:Mechanical work, chemical work, transport workBasically, all cellular processesATP in cells = good for only a few seconds of activity (not efficient storage)1 molecule of glucose stores more than 90x’s the chemical energy of ATPCells can generate ATP as needed from the glucose in carbohydrates consumed during feeding
51Investigating Photosynthesis Jan van HelmontConcludes plants gain most of their mass from waterJoseph PriestlyConcludes that plants release a substance that keeps a candle burning (oxygen)Jan IngenhouszConcludes that plants produce oxygen bubbles in the light but not in the dark (they need sunlight).
53Light and Pigments Photosynthesis requires: Light From sunlight (A mixture of different wavelengths of light)Chlorophyll (a pigment found in chloroplasts that absorbs light energy)2 main types:Chlorophyll a (absorbs violet and red light)Chlorophyll b (absorbs blue and red light)
56NADPHWhen sunlight hits chlorophyll a double bond is broken releasing a high energy electron.This high energy electron requires a special carrier called NADP+.Once the electron is combined with NADP+ it becomes NADPH.NADPH carries this energy to other reactions around the cell.
57Light-Dependent Reactions Use energy from sunlight to produce Oxygen, ATP and NADPH.Photosystem II is the first to absorb light (discovered after photosystem I)Light smashes high energy electrons out of the chlorophyll molecules which are carried to electron transport chains in the thylakoid membrane.The lost electrons from the chlorophyll molecule are replaced by breaking water molecules apart which releases oxygen.
58Light-Dependent Reactions (Continued) High energy electrons move from Photosystem II to photosystem I.Energy from this transport pumps H+ ions from the stroma into the inner thylakoid.Pigments in photosystem I use sunlight to release additional high energy electrons and a H+ ion becomes NADPHInside of thylakoid membrane becomes positively charged (from the H+ ions)/outside negatively chargedCharge difference allows ATP to be made.
59Light-Dependent Reactions (Continued) ATP formation=H+ ions move through a protein called ATP synthase.As it rotates the protein binds ADP with an additional phosphate to create ATP!
61The Calvin Cycle: OR the light-independent reactions ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are required to produce high-energy sugars.Step 1: CO2 enters the cycle and is combined with 6 5-Carbon molecules forms 12 3-Carbon moleculesStep 2: Energy from ATP and NADPH are used to convert the 12 3-Carbon molecules into higher-energy forms
62The Calvin Cycle: OR the light-independent reactions Step 3: 2 3-Carbon molecules are used to make a 6-Carbon sugar (glucose!)Step 4: The 10 remaining 3-Carbon molecules are converted back into 6 5-carbon moleculesThese are reused in the next cycle!!!
64Factors affecting photosynthesis Availability of WaterShortage of water can slow or stop photosynthesisTemperaturePlants function best between 0°C and 35°C (temperatures above or below may damage enzymes and slow or stop photosynthesis)Intensity of lightIncreasing intensity increases rate of photosynthesis until maximum rate of photosynthesis is reached.
65Photosynthesis Molecular Workbench We will be completing this online together…Use your analysis packets as additional notes.We will be completing this in class!
67Chemical Pathways Energy in food: Calorie = amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 g of water 1°CGradually release energy from glucose and other food compounds2 Pathway for energy releaseAerobic (O2 present)Anaerobic (in the absence of O2)
68Cellular Respiration Overview Oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide water +energy6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2+ 6H2O ATP3 main stages:GlycolysisThe Krebs cycle (or “citric acid cycle”)Electron Transport Chain (or “oxidative phosphorylation”)
69Glycolysis (glyco- = sweet; lysis = breaking) Occurs in the cytoplasm near the mitochondionNo oxygen is required for glycolysis1 molecule of glucose (6C) is broken into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3C) (pyruvate)Needs to use 2 ATP to get startedGenerates 4 ATP at the endNet ATP total = 2 ATPProduces 4 molecules of NADH (high energy electron carrier) transports to other reaction sites
70What happens if there is no oxygen? Fermentation!Cells convert NADH back into NAD+ by passing electrons back to pyruvateAllows glycolysis to continue to produce ATP (not efficient)2 main types:Alcoholic Fermentation (bacteria and yeast)Lactic Acid Fermentation (humans)
71Alcoholic Fermentation Yeasts and bacteriaBeer, wine, and bread productionPyruvic acid + NADH alcohol CO2 +NAD+In bread:CO2 makes the bread riseAlcohol is baked off
72Lactic Acid Fermentation Pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acidThis regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue to generate ATPPyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid NAD+Produced in the muscles when there is not enough O2 causing burning/painExample: Wall sit of death
73What if there is oxygen present after glycolysis? Krebs cycle and electron transport chain!!!Most powerful electron acceptor = oxygen!!!Uses the remaining 90% of energy still trapped in the glucose molecule after glycolysis!
74The Krebs Cycle Step # 1: Pyruvic acid enters the mitochodrion A carbon is removed forming CO2 and electrons are removed forming NADHCO2 is combined with coenzyme A and is transformed into acetyl-CoAAcetyl-CoA adds a 2-C acetyl group to a 4C compound forming citric acid.
75The Krebs Cycle (continued) Step # 2:Citric acid is broken down into a 5C compound then a 4C compound2 molecules of CO2 are released, electrons form NADH and FADH2, and 1 ATP is generatedFrom one molecule of pyruvic acid=4 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATPBut remember 2 molecules of pyruvic acid are made from each molecule of glucose!!! (so this process happens twice)
78Electron TransportThe high energy electrons in FADH2 and NADH from the Kreb’s cycleAre transported to the inner membrane of the mitochondrionIn prokaryotes ETC is in the cell membraneThe ETC uses the high energy electrons to make ATP
79Electron Transport (continued) High energy electrons are passed to a series of carrier proteins in the membraneAs electrons move to each carrier, H+ ions are moved to the inner membrane spaceThese will be used later to generate ATP via ATP synthaseAt the end an enzyme that combines the electrons with hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water
80Energy Totals Aerobic Respiration = 36 ATP Uses 38% of the total energy of a molecule of glucoseThe rest is released as heat (body heat!)More efficient than a gasoline car engineWe are an efficient combustion engine!!!Anaerobic Respiration = 2 ATP
81Energy and Exercise Quick energy (a sprint) ATP is short-lived and is used right awayStored ATP used in a few seconds of intense activityThen, ATP is generated via lactic acid fermentation
82Energy and Exercise Long-term energy (marathon) For exercise longer than 90 seconds cellular respiration is the only way to generate enough ATP to sustain activity.Stored energy = glycogen (breaks down into glucose and is stored in muscles)Lasts only about minutesOnce glycogen is depleted body uses fat stores (good for weight loss!)
83Linking to Homeostasis Rate of Cellular Respiration Inquiry (RITES lab using BIOPACS)Heart Rate MonitorDesign an experiment to test the rate of cellular respirationHow does cellular respiration work to maintain homeostasis in the human body?Include body systems in your response.
84Comparing Cellular Respiration to Photosynthesis Generate a chart comparing the following:PhotosynthesisCell RespirationFunctionLocationReactantsProductsEquation
85Cellular Respiration Molecular Workbench Complete this online and use your analysis packets as additional notes.We will be completing this in class!TedX talk –Discovering ancient climates in oceans and ice: Rob Dunbar on TED.com
87Limits to Cell Size Activity Draw an example of a town with the borders being the edges of the paperThere is one main road into and out of the town.Think of a cell and the parts needed to run the cell.Recreate these parts as parts of a townDon’t forget: nutrients (food trucks) and waste (dump trucks)
88Limits to Cell Size Activity Increase the Population by THREE TIMESWhat does this do to the demands put on the town?:What does this do to the Traffic?What does this do to the Waste and Nutrients?What does this do to the Resources needed to thrive?What does this do to the people who run the town?
89Limits to Cell Size Activity Based on the activity…What are the 2 limits to cell size?What happens when a cell becomes too big?
90Cell Growth 2 limits to cell size = The larger the cell becomes the more demands the cell places on its DNAThe cell has difficulty moving nutrients and waste across the membraneThus the size of a cell is limitedAs the length of a cell increases…Volume increases faster than its surface area
91What happens when a cell gets too big? IT DIVIDES!!!Cell division1 cell 2 daughter cells (exact copies of the original)Prokaryotes easyCircular DNA copies then dividesEukaryotes more involvedComplex DNA (23 pairs of chromosomes = 46 total)
108Telophase/Cytokinesis Occurs simultaneouslyTelophaseThe nuclear envelope reforms around the chromosomesThe chromosomes uncoilCytokinesisThe cytoplasm divides2 daughter cells are produced (each are exact copies of the original with 46 chromosomes)
115Controls on Cell Division Cell growth and division can be turned on and offExampleCells in a petri dish will continue to grow until they come in contact with other cells.A cut in the skin will cause cells to divide until the wound in healed.
117Cell Cycle Regulators Cyclin Internal Regulators Protein that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cellsWhen injected into a non-dividing cell it causes a mitotic spindle to formInternal RegulatorsResponds to events inside the cellMakes sure that a cell does not enter mitosis until all chromosomes are replicated
118Cell Cycle Regulators (cont.) External RegulatorsRespond to events outside the cell“Growth factors” that speed up or slow down growth and division
119Uncontrolled Cell Growth CANCER –Cells that lose the ability to control cell growthMost cancers have damage to the p53 geneNormally halts the cell cycle until all chromosomes are replicatedChromosome damage builds up and the cancer cell loses the information that controls normal cell growthTumors masses of cells that can damage the surrounding tissueCAUSES: smoking tobacco, radiation exposure (UV, XRAY, etc.), viral infection
120Life Spans of Various Human Cells Cell TypeLife SpanCell DivisionLining of esophagus2-3 daysCan divideLining of small intestine1-2 daysLining of large intestine6 daysRed blood cellLess than 120 daysCannot divideWhite blood cell10 hours to decadesSmooth muscleLong-livedCardiac (heart) muscleSkeletal muscleNeuron (nerve cell)Most do not divide
121Life Spans of Human Cell Questions White blood cells help protect the body from infection and disease-producing organisms. How might their function relate to their life span?If cancer cells were added to the table, predict what would be written under the “Life Span” and “Cell Division” columns. Explain you’re the reasoning behind your predictions.