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Biology EOC Class #3 Room 221 Mrs. Gleb. Class Three Plan!  Cells  Photosynthesis  Writing: Conclusions  Assessment – Cells  Assessment – Photosynthesis.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology EOC Class #3 Room 221 Mrs. Gleb. Class Three Plan!  Cells  Photosynthesis  Writing: Conclusions  Assessment – Cells  Assessment – Photosynthesis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology EOC Class #3 Room 221 Mrs. Gleb

2 Class Three Plan!  Cells  Photosynthesis  Writing: Conclusions  Assessment – Cells  Assessment – Photosynthesis  Practice Test Questions (if there is time!)

3 Cells

4 Cell Theory  All living things are composed of cells  Cells are the basic unit of function and structure in living things  All cells come from pre-existing cells

5 Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Eukaryotic  Contains Nucleus  Many organelles present  micrometers  Appeared later in the fossil record (more recent) Prokaryotic  No Nucleus  No Organelles  1-10 micrometers  Appeared earlier in the fossil record

6 ProkaryoteEukaryote

7 Cell Structure  Cell Organization- Eukaryotic cells can be divided into two major parts  Nucleus  Contains the cell DNA  Cytoplasm (area outside the nucleus)

8 Function of Cell Organelles  Vacuoles  Sack-like structures that store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates  Vesicles  Smaller structures that store and move materials between cell organelles and the cell surface

9 Function of Cell Organelles  Lysosomes  Small organelles filled with enzymes  Break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules  Remove junk that would otherwise remain inside the cell  “clean-up” crew

10 Organelle Function – Building Proteins  Ribosomes  Small particles of RNA  Produce proteins  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Where lipids and proteins are assembled  Golgi Apparatus  Sorts and packages proteins for storage or release

11 Organelle Function Capture and Release Energy  Chloroplasts  Found in plants  Capture energy from sunlight and convert to food  Mitochondria  Convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

12 Cell Transport Passive Transport  Passive Transport  Movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy  Diffusion  Moving particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration  Facilitated Diffusion (Osmosis)  Molecules pass through special protein channels – fast and specific

13 Osmosis – facilitated diffusion  Osmosis  Water enters the cells through aquaporin  Isotonic (cell stays the same size)  Concentration of solutes is the same inside and outside the cell  Hypertonic (cell shrinks)  Higher concentration of solutes outside the cell  Hypotonic (cell swells)  Lower concentration of solutes outside the cell  Osmotic Pressure

14 Active Transport  The movement of materials against a concentration difference  Molecular Transport  Small molecules and ions are carried across membranes by proteins that act like pumps  Bulk Transport – larger molecules and material are transported across membranes  Endocytosis- taking material into the cell by in-folding the membrane (forming pockets)  Exocytosis – releasing material to outside the cell

15 Homeostasis & Cells  Homeostasis  Constant internal and external conditions  Multicellular Life  Cells become specialized for particular tasks  Cell Specialization  Levels of Organization  Tissue – group of cells that perform a task  Organ- many groups of tissue working together  Organ System – a group of organs working together  Cellular Communication  Cells communicate through chemical signals and receptors

16 Photosynthesis Energy & Life

17 Chemical Energy & ATP  ATP  Adenosine Triphosphate  Fuel for cells  Storing Energy  ADP – a way for cells to store ATP  Releasing Energy  Energy is released by breaking bonds between ATP  Using energy  Cells keep large amounts of ADP on hand as a way to create ATP to use

18 Heterotrophs & Autotrophs  Heterotrophs  Obtain food by consuming other living things  Autotrophs  Make their own food  Photosynthesis  Converting energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates

19 Photosynthesis  Chlorophyll and Chloroplasts  Light & Color  Plants gather the sun’s energy with pigments  The principal pigment is chlorophyll  Chlorophyll absorbs light well in blue- violet & red spectrum and REFLECTS green  This is why plants look green!

20 Chloroplasts  Chloroplasts contain lots of saclike membranes called thylakoids.  Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called granum  Pigments are inside the granum  The rest of the chloroplast is fluid called stroma

21 Photosynthesis

22 Light Dependent & Light Independent Reactions Light Dependent  Reactions that directly involve light and light- absorbing pigments  Water is required  Oxygen is released as a byproduct Light Independent  Plants absorb carbon dioxide and complete photosynthesis by producing sugars  No light is needed

23 Light Dependent Reactions  Generate ATP and NADPH  Use sunlight to convert ATP into ADP and NADP into NADPH  ADP and NADPH are energy carriers  Occur in the Thylakoids  Use Pigments

24 Light Independent Reactions  Plants use the ATP and NADPH to build stable compounds (sugars and carbs) for energy  This is called the Calvin cycle

25 Factors that impact Photosynthesis  Temperature  Enzymes function best between 0 – 35 degrees Celsius  Light  High intensity light makes the plants photosynthesis faster  Water  Water is a reactant that is needed

26 Writing on the EOC  You MUST write something on these sections!  These questions are where the most students lose points – do not skip them  Carefully review each writing question and underline the components that your answer should have

27 Types of Short Answer / Writing Questions  Conclusions  Answer the question  Include supporting data from the IV & DV table  Explain how the data support your conclusion  Provide an explanation for the trend in the data

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